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Available from: Maria L Urso, Jun 20, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Two days of practice on simple and choice reaction (RT) and movement time (MT) were studied using 60 males placed into four groups based upon age and physical activity level. Practice effects upon simple and choice RTs were different for young and old groups. Only the two inactive groups improved on simple and choice MT, with greatest improvement occurring on simple MT. Old Actives had true-score variance than the Old Inactives, but much greater than the two young groups. Intraindividual variability was greater for the two older groups even in the absence of practice effects. Results support the claim that a life style or regular physical activity may lessen aging effects upon RT and MT as well as attenuating interindividual variability.
    Journal of Motor Behavior 01/1979; 10(4):275-86. DOI:10.1080/00222895.1978.10735161 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health, but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size, strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength, or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after resistance exercise training. One thousand men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic agents capable of preserving muscle size and function.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 07/2004; 36(7):1132-9. DOI:10.1249/01.MSS.0000132274.26612.23 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) gene encodes a protein of the Z disk of myofibers, and a polymorphism of ACTN3 results in complete loss of the protein. The ACTN3 genotype (R577X) has been found to be associated with performance in Australian elite athletes (Yang N, MacArthur DG, Gulbin JP, Hahn AG, Beggs AH, Easteal S, and North K. Am J Hum Genet 73: 627-631, 2003). We studied associations between ACTN3 genotype and muscle size [cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and elbow flexor isometric (MVC) and dynamic [1-repetition maximum (1-RM)] strength in a large group of men (N = 247) and women (N = 355) enrolled in a 12-wk standardized elbow flexor/extensor resistance training program of the nondominant arm at one of eight study centers. We found no association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and muscle phenotype in men. However, women homozygous for the ACTN3 577X allele (XX) had lower baseline MVC compared with heterozygotes (P < 0.05) when adjusted for body mass and age. Women homozygous for the mutant allele (577X) demonstrated greater absolute and relative 1-RM gains compared with the homozygous wild type (RR) after resistance training when adjusted for body mass and age (P < 0.05). There was a trend for a dose-response with genotype such that gains were greatest for XX and least for RR. Significant associations were validated in at least one ethnic subpopulation (Caucasians, Asians) and were independent of training volume. About 2% of baseline MVC and of 1-RM strength gain after training were attributable to ACTN3 genotype (likelihood-ratio test P value, P = 0.01), suggesting that ACTN3 is one of many genes contributing to genetic variation in muscle performance and adaptation to exercise.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 07/2005; 99(1):154-63. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01139.2004 · 3.43 Impact Factor