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Survival of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients in Northeastern Thailand after Supportive Treatment

Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP (Impact Factor: 2.51). 11/2013; 14(11):7029-32. DOI: 10.7314/APJCP.2012.14.11.7029
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ABSTRACT Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very common cancer in Northeastern Thailand. Most CCA patients see a physician at a late stage when curative surgery is not possible. After diagnosis, they generally are treated by partial surgery/percutaneous drainage, chemotherapy and supportive treatment. Objective: This study aimed to assess the survival rates of CCA patients after supportive treatment. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was applied in this study. Data for 746 CCA patients were extracted from the hospital-based cancer registry of Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University. The patients were diagnosed (at least by ultrasonography) between 1 January, 2009 and 31 December, 2009 and then followed up for current status until 30 June, 2011. The cumulative survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent prognostic factors were investigated using Cox regression. Results: The total follow-up time was 5,878 person-months, and the total number of deaths was 637. The mortality rate was therefore 10.8 per 100 person-year (95%CI : 10.1-11.7). The cumulative 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 month survival rates were 59%, 39%, 31%, 24% and 14%, respectively. The median survival time after supportive treatment was 4 months. After adjusting for gender, age, stage, distant metastasis, histological grading and treatment, stage was a significant predictor of survival of CCA patients. Those in stage III and stage IV had a 6.78 fold higher mortality than the stage I and stage II cases (95% CI : 1.6-28.7). Conclusion: It is very important to encourage patients to see health personnel at an early stage.

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    • "affecting survival of CHCA patients who had diagnosis in late stage. The encourage patients to see health personnel at early stage is very important (Thunyaharn et al., 2013). Palliative therapeutic approaches, consisting of percutaneous and endoscopic biliary drainage, have usually been used for these patients because there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for this type of cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA) is serious public health problem in Thailand, especially in the northeastern and northern regions. CHCA is known as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors associated with local invasion and a high rate of metastasis. A crucial step in the invasion process is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basal membranes, for which several studies have shown a critical role played by matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11). OBJECTIVE: This study aim to detect MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens and any correlation with survival time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 30 patients with CHCA in Rajvithi hospital, who had undergone immunohistochemical staining of MMP-11. Relationships between clinicopathological data and MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens were analyzed by the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. The estimated survival and the survival differences were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, respectively. RESULTS: MMP-11 expression was found in 15 specimens (50%). The overall mean survival time is 237.0 days (95% CI 135.4-338.5, SD 271.9). Specimens with a positive MMP-11 had an average survival time of 136.7 days (95%CI 50.3-223.1, SD 156.0). Survival differences was signficant for the positive and negative MMP-11(p=0.022), but not well differentiated tumor and moderate to poor differentiated tumor (p=0.755), CA19-9 level of >1,000 and <1,000 (p=0.488), and between advanced and non-advanced staging (p=0.388). CONCLUSIONS: The positive MMP-11 expression indicates poor prognosis in CHCA specimens.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 05/2015; 16(9):3697-3701. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Generally, only 10% of patients present with early-stage disease are considered surgical candidates (Han et al., 2005) and chemotherapy is the option left for these inoperable patients (Chou and Talalay, 1984). However, the outcome of the chemo-drug treatment is unfavorable with the five year survival lesser than 10% (Butthongkomvong et al., 2013; Rizvi and Gores, 2013; Thunyaharn et al., 2013). To reduce the mortality rate of CCA, new effective treatment strategies are needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer with poor prognosis and less than 10% of CCA patients can be offered surgical cure. Conventional chemotherapy results in unfavorable outcomes. At present, plant-derived compounds are gaining interest as potential cancer therapeutics, particularly for treatment-refractory cancers. In this study, antitumor activity of tiliacorinine, the major alkaloid isolated from a tropical plant, on CCA was first demonstrated. Antiproliferative effects of tiliacorinine on human CCA cell lines were investigated using SRB assays. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometric analysis and DNA laddering assays were used for apoptotic determination. Apoptosis-related proteins were verified by Western blotting and antitumor activity of tiliacorinine in vivo was demonstrated in CCA xenografted mice. Tiliacorinine significantly inhibited proliferation of human CCA cell lines with IC50 4.5-7 μM by inducing apoptosis through caspase activation, up- regulation of BAX, and down-regulation of BclxL and XIAP. Tiliacorinine considerably reduced tumor growth in CCA xenografted mice. These results demonstrated antitumor effects of tiliacorinine on human CCA in vitro and in vivo. Tiliacorinine may be an effective agent for CCA treatment.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 09/2014; 15(17):7473-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.17.7473 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.
    Frontiers in Genetics 12/2014; 5:444. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00444

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