Tragedy of the commons.

DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4494-1_328 In book: Encylopedia of Environmental Science, Chapter: Tragedy of the Commons, Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Editors: David E. Alexander, Rhodes W. Fairbridge, pp.601-602

ABSTRACT Despite the reception of Hardin's essay on the tragedy of the commons, it was not a new concept: its intellectual roots trace back to Aristotle who noted that "what is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it." What Hardin recognized was that this concept applies in its broader sense to a great many modern environmental problems (e.g., overgrazing on federal lands, acid precipitation, ocean dumping, atmospheric carbon dioxide discharges, firewood crises in less developed countries, overfishing). Simply stated, we face a serious dilemma - an instance where individual rational behavior (i.e., acting without restraint to maximize personal short-term gain at the possible expense of others) can cause long-range harm to the environment, others and ultimately oneself.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article is a review of research on encouraging pro-environmental behavior in a variety of fields and applies the results to create recommendations for eco-design. Environmental psychology, behavioral psychology, consumerism, business, environmental political science, and additional social science research were used to define cognitive concepts that led to the purchase and use of eco-products. The concepts and basic explanations are: (1) responsibility, a sense of personal control over actions and outcomes; (2) complex decision-making skills, mental tools that structure complex decisions; (3) decision heuristics, mental shortcuts that simplify judgments and decisions; (4) the altruism-sacrifice link, an assumption that doing good requires personal sacrifice; (5) trust, the degree to which a person believes the information they are given; (6) cognitive dissonance/guilt, the mental processes that may occur when a mismatch between intention and action is identified; and (7) motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction that drives behavior. Eco-product examples are provided to highlight the role of the cognitive concepts design. Design recommendations and relevant design methods are discussed. The recommendations require coordination between designers, manufacturers, marketers, and government policy-makers to achieve positive changes in individuals' behavior.
    Journal of Cleaner Production 04/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.096 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lack of success in dealing with the inconsistency between positive attitudes and ecological behaviors, and in explaining why people fail to act pro-environmentally is still widespread in practice and research. In our view, this has to do with three main reasons: 1) A positivity fallacy -the belief shared by many researchers and practitioners that as long as people have the right (or positive) attitudes, intentions, skills, information, etc., the right pro-ecological action should follow; thus, they disregard the importance of negative determinants in explaining the attitude-behavior inconsistency. 2) Lack of a psychological level of explanation; even when negative determinants are considered, the psychological explanation is often disregarded or incompletely identified, with most of the factors identified being socio-economical, or urban planning and architectural, etc. However, factors explaining why people fail to act can also be viewed within a psychological level of explanation, with behavior considered to be the result of an interaction between contextual variables and psychological processes. 3) Underestimation of the unconscious processes influence; contextual effects on behavior can be mediated not only by conscious perception but also by cognitive processes of which people are not aware of. Given these reasons, a model of psychological barriers and constraints is proposed (DN-Work model; "Didn't work") trying to integrate negative determinants within a psychological explanatory model of pro-ecological behavior. This model aims to represent a process view regarding how a conflict between pro-ecological and anti-ecological behavioral goals can be produced, given the presence of two types of barriers and constraints: a) perceived barriers and constraints, and b) unconscious barriers and constraints. We briefly present two studies based on this model. These studies address habit accessibility as an unconscious behavioral barrier on ecological decisions to buy organic products, mediated by the effect of behavioral-goals activation from the situation.