Effects of sleep restriction and exercise deprivation on somatic symptoms and mood in healthy adults

Clinical and experimental rheumatology (Impact Factor: 2.72). 12/2013; 31(6 Suppl 79):53-9.
Source: PubMed


Exposure to acute 'stressors' (e.g. infections, pain, trauma) often results in altered sleep habits and reductions in routine activity. In some individuals, these behavioural responses to acute stressors may contribute to the development of chronic somatic symptoms such as widespread pain, fatigue, memory difficulties and mood disturbances, much like those associated with 'functional somatic syndromes' (FSS) such as fibromyalgia or chronicfatigue syndrome.
Eighty-seven healthy young adults who reported sleeping between 7 and 9 hours nightly and exercising regularly were randomised to one of four groups: exercise cessation, sleep restriction (6 hours nightly), both, or neither. Symptoms of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and negative mood were measured before and after the 10-day restriction period.
Sleep restriction was a potent contributor to the development of somatic symptoms. Exercise cessation was less influential leading only to fatigue. There were no significant interactions between exercise cessation and sleep restriction, except that males were much more likely to develop somatic symptoms when deprived of both sleep and exercise than one or the other. Women were generally much more likely to develop somatic symptoms than men.
This study supports previous research suggesting that both sleep and exercise are critical in 'preventing' somatic symptoms among some individuals. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first time there is data to suggest that women are much more sensitive to decrements in routine sleep and exercise than are men.

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    • "Moreover,athletespracticingcontactsportswhoexperienced concussionsduringthepreviousyearreportedmoresymptomsof sleepdisturbanceandpoorersleepqualitythandidthecontrols [125]andsubjectswithalowsleepquantitythenightbeforethe concussionreportedbothagreaternumbergreaternumberof symptomsandmoreseveresymptomsaftertheconcussion[126]. Sleeprestrictionisapotentcontributortothedevelopmentofsomaticsymptoms ,particularlyinmalesassociatingbothsleep deprivationandexercise[10]whoreportedincreasedpainsensi- tivity[127].Inparticular,sleepproblemsareassociatedwithan increasedriskofchronicpaininthelowerback,neckandshoulders [13].Nevertheless,regularexerciseandmaintenanceofnormal bodyweightmayreducetheadverseeffectsofmildsleepproblems ontheriskofchronicpain[13].Takentogether,theseresultssug- gestthecreationofaperniciouscircleincludingsleeploss,injuries, decreasedrecoverypatterns,anincreasedpainthatthemselves favorsleepdisturbances. Sleepdisturbancesarealsoassociatedwithovertrainingduring periodsofhighvolumetraining[94] [128] [129].Moreoverreduced sleepqualitycanbeassociatedwithhigherprevalenceofupper respiratorytractinfectionsinoverreachingpopulations[130]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person’s cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 06/2014; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.008 · 8.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anxiety disorders have gathered much attention as possible risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly mediated by an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. low physical activity). However, prospective studies on anxiety disorders and CVD show conflicting results. A possible explanation is that somatic symptoms of anxiety may have a more specific cardiovascular effect than cognitive symptoms across different anxiety disorders. The present study investigated the association between cognitive and somatic symptoms of anxiety and physical activity (PA) in a sample of panic disorder (PD) outpatients. Methods One-hundred and two outpatients with a lifetime diagnosis of PD from a previously studied cohort were contacted. Patients were evaluated throughout the MINI, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After performing a multivariate regression analysis, groups were divided into high and low somatic anxiety. Results Patients with high somatic anxiety showed a significantly higher prevalence of low level of PA as compared to those with low somatic anxiety (62.5 versus 34.3%; χ²= 5.33; df=1; P=.021). Somatic symptoms of anxiety remained the only important predictors of low level of PA (odds ratio [OR] 2.81; 95% CI 1.00–7.90; p=.050) in the multivariate model. Limitations The main limitations of the present study are the cross-sectional design and the small sample size. Conclusions Results support specific effects of somatic symptoms of anxiety on risk for low level of PA, which might explain inconsistent results regarding CVD risk in the literature.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2014; 164:63-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.007 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is described as a central afferent processing disorder that might be associated with multiple physical and somatic symptoms. Sleep disturbances might be associated with the experience of somatic symptoms in FMS. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate the insomnia frequency, the relationship between insomnia and widespread pain, somatic symptoms, functional status in FMS. Materials and methods: Subjects diagnosed as FMS according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 criteria were included. Patients were asked for Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Correlations between the ISI scores and the FIQ, the FFS total and each item of the FFS, the Widespread Pain Index (WPI) scores and the sum of the Symptom Severity Scores (SS) were analysed. Data of the patients were compared in terms of those parameters according to insomnia levels determined by the ISI. Results: Ninety-one patients with FMS participated into the study. 76% of the patients had insomnia according to ISI. The ISI scores were found to be correlated with the WPI, the SS, total score of ACR 2010 criteria, the FIQ score, FFS total score, and some items of the FFS score, but not correlated with age, gender, symptom duration and education level. When patients were sub-grouped according to ISI, a significant statistical difference was found regarding FIQ, FFS, ACR 2010 total, WPI score and the SS score with respect from severe to moderate insomnia. Conclusion: In this study, insomnia is one of the major symptoms of FMS and correlated with other somatic symptoms. Sleep quality should be evaluated in every FMS patient.
    Acta Medica Mediterranea 01/2015; 31(2):357-362. · 0.11 Impact Factor
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