Effects of sleep restriction and exercise deprivation on somatic symptoms and mood in healthy adults.
ABSTRACT Exposure to acute 'stressors' (e.g. infections, pain, trauma) often results in altered sleep habits and reductions in routine activity. In some individuals, these behavioural responses to acute stressors may contribute to the development of chronic somatic symptoms such as widespread pain, fatigue, memory difficulties and mood disturbances, much like those associated with 'functional somatic syndromes' (FSS) such as fibromyalgia or chronicfatigue syndrome.
Eighty-seven healthy young adults who reported sleeping between 7 and 9 hours nightly and exercising regularly were randomised to one of four groups: exercise cessation, sleep restriction (6 hours nightly), both, or neither. Symptoms of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and negative mood were measured before and after the 10-day restriction period.
Sleep restriction was a potent contributor to the development of somatic symptoms. Exercise cessation was less influential leading only to fatigue. There were no significant interactions between exercise cessation and sleep restriction, except that males were much more likely to develop somatic symptoms when deprived of both sleep and exercise than one or the other. Women were generally much more likely to develop somatic symptoms than men.
This study supports previous research suggesting that both sleep and exercise are critical in 'preventing' somatic symptoms among some individuals. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first time there is data to suggest that women are much more sensitive to decrements in routine sleep and exercise than are men.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person’s cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.Sleep Medicine Reviews 06/2014; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.008 · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Anxiety disorders have gathered much attention as possible risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly mediated by an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. low physical activity). However, prospective studies on anxiety disorders and CVD show conflicting results. A possible explanation is that somatic symptoms of anxiety may have a more specific cardiovascular effect than cognitive symptoms across different anxiety disorders. The present study investigated the association between cognitive and somatic symptoms of anxiety and physical activity (PA) in a sample of panic disorder (PD) outpatients. Methods One-hundred and two outpatients with a lifetime diagnosis of PD from a previously studied cohort were contacted. Patients were evaluated throughout the MINI, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After performing a multivariate regression analysis, groups were divided into high and low somatic anxiety. Results Patients with high somatic anxiety showed a significantly higher prevalence of low level of PA as compared to those with low somatic anxiety (62.5 versus 34.3%; χ²= 5.33; df=1; P=.021). Somatic symptoms of anxiety remained the only important predictors of low level of PA (odds ratio [OR] 2.81; 95% CI 1.00–7.90; p=.050) in the multivariate model. Limitations The main limitations of the present study are the cross-sectional design and the small sample size. Conclusions Results support specific effects of somatic symptoms of anxiety on risk for low level of PA, which might explain inconsistent results regarding CVD risk in the literature.Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2014; 164:63-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.007 · 3.71 Impact Factor