Changing commuter travel behavior: Employer-initiated strategies.
ABSTRACT Commuter travel has certain features that make it potentially more responsive to interventions than other types of travel. However, from the perspective of the employer attempting to implement a trip reduction program, it is often difficult to determine what type of intervention (or combination of interventions) would be most effective. This article reviews the literature on strategies for changing commuter behavior, with a focus on techniques that an employer might use (i.e., rather than a focus on physical or regulatory barriers to non-conserving behavior). Behavior change strategies are organized into three categories: informational approaches, positive motivational approaches, and coercive approaches. In general, research in commuter behavior change
has focused on the application of external, tangible motivation (e.g., financial incentives or disincentives) to the exclusion of self-initiated, less tangible factors (e.g., commitment and self-monitoring techniques). The implications of this bias are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of a inter-urban carsharing program on users’ mode choice behaviour were investigated and modelled through specification, calibration and validation of different modelling approaches founded on the behavioural paradigm of the random utility theory. To this end, switching models conditional on the usually chosen transport mode, unconditional switching models and holding models were investigated and compared. The aim was threefold: (i) to analyse the feasibility of a inter-urban carsharing program; (ii) to investigate the main determinants of the choice behaviour; (iii) to compare different approaches (switching vs. holding; conditional vs. unconditional); (iv) to investigate different modelling solutions within the random utility framework (homoscedastic, heteroscedastic and cross-correlated closed-form solutions). The set of models was calibrated on a stated preferences survey carried out on users commuting within the metropolitan area of Salerno, in particular with regard to the home-to-work trips from /to Salerno (the capital city of the Salerno province) to/from the three main municipalities belonging to the metropolitan area of Salerno. All of the involved municipalities significantly interact each other, the average trip length is about 30 Km a day and all are served by public transport. The proposed carsharing program was a one-way service, working alongside public transport, with the possibility of sharing the same car among different users, with free and/or dedicated parking slots and free access to the existent restricted traffic areas. Results indicated that the inter-urban carsharing service may be a substitute of the car transport mode, but also it could be a complementary alternative to the transit system in those time periods in which the service is not guaranteed or efficient. Estimation results highlighted that the conditional switching approach is the most effective one, whereas travel monetary cost, access time to carsharing parking slots, gender, age, trip frequency, car availability and the type of trip (home-based) were the most significant attributes. Elasticity results showed that access time to the parking slots predominantly influences choice probability for bus and carpool users; change in carsharing travel costs mainly affects carpool users; change in travel costs of the usually chosen transport mode mainly affects car and carpool users.Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 01/2015; 71(C):59-76. · 2.73 Impact Factor
- Transportation Research Part A General 01/2013; 56:11-22.
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of individual and organizational determinants of proenvironmental work-related travel behavior, and their interactions, is presented. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with office workers from four organizations in two Dutch provinces. Environmentally-relevant behavior related to commutes and business trips (i.e. travel frequency, travel mode, teleworking, and teleconferencing) was examined. Evidence from interorganizational comparisons suggests that organizational measures did not have uniform effects on employee behavior which was partially due to differences in attitude and personal income. The salience of social norms pertaining to work-related travel behavior also differed between organizations and organizational subpopulations. Differences in attitudes between employees, however, did correspond to some extent to organizational culture or focus differences at the organizational level. Finally, the results underscore the possibility that similar outcomes at the behavioral level might be the result of different underlying dynamics.Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 10/2013; 56. · 2.73 Impact Factor