Changing commuter travel behavior: Employer-initiated strategies.

ABSTRACT Commuter travel has certain features that make it potentially more responsive to interventions than other types of travel. However, from the perspective of the employer attempting to implement a trip reduction program, it is often difficult to determine what type of intervention (or combination of interventions) would be most effective. This article reviews the literature on strategies for changing commuter behavior, with a focus on techniques that an employer might use (i.e., rather than a focus on physical or regulatory barriers to non-conserving behavior). Behavior change strategies are organized into three categories: informational approaches, positive motivational approaches, and coercive approaches. In general, research in commuter behavior change
has focused on the application of external, tangible motivation (e.g., financial incentives or disincentives) to the exclusion of self-initiated, less tangible factors (e.g., commitment and self-monitoring techniques). The implications of this bias are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

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    ABSTRACT: Carsharing, a service that allows individuals the use of a private vehicle without the burden of ownership, is expanding rapidly around the world. In the United States, for-profit and non-profit organizations are emerging and expanding at high rates. Daimler Auto Group is entering this market with its Car2Go, a carsharing organization with a fleet composed entirely of Smart Fortwo vehicles, beginning with a pilot program in Austin, Texas. This paper compared the Austin market with successful carshare markets in order to determine the likelihood of success for Car2Go. Using new surveys and analysis of previous literature, this research has found that the highly-educated and high-income populations found residing in downtown Austin and working or studying at the University of Texas are likely to be strong markets for future carsharing services. Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering
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    Transportation Research Part A General 01/2013; 56:11-22.
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of individual and organizational determinants of proenvironmental work-related travel behavior, and their interactions, is presented. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with office workers from four organizations in two Dutch provinces. Environmentally-relevant behavior related to commutes and business trips (i.e. travel frequency, travel mode, teleworking, and teleconferencing) was examined. Evidence from interorganizational comparisons suggests that organizational measures did not have uniform effects on employee behavior which was partially due to differences in attitude and personal income. The salience of social norms pertaining to work-related travel behavior also differed between organizations and organizational subpopulations. Differences in attitudes between employees, however, did correspond to some extent to organizational culture or focus differences at the organizational level. Finally, the results underscore the possibility that similar outcomes at the behavioral level might be the result of different underlying dynamics.
    Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 01/2013; 56. · 2.73 Impact Factor