Changing commuter travel behavior: Employer-initiated strategies.
ABSTRACT Commuter travel has certain features that make it potentially more responsive to interventions than other types of travel. However, from the perspective of the employer attempting to implement a trip reduction program, it is often difficult to determine what type of intervention (or combination of interventions) would be most effective. This article reviews the literature on strategies for changing commuter behavior, with a focus on techniques that an employer might use (i.e., rather than a focus on physical or regulatory barriers to non-conserving behavior). Behavior change strategies are organized into three categories: informational approaches, positive motivational approaches, and coercive approaches. In general, research in commuter behavior change
has focused on the application of external, tangible motivation (e.g., financial incentives or disincentives) to the exclusion of self-initiated, less tangible factors (e.g., commitment and self-monitoring techniques). The implications of this bias are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
- SourceAvailable from: Gerjo KokTransportation Research Part A General 01/2013; 56:11-22.
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of individual and organizational determinants of proenvironmental work-related travel behavior, and their interactions, is presented. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with office workers from four organizations in two Dutch provinces. Environmentally-relevant behavior related to commutes and business trips (i.e. travel frequency, travel mode, teleworking, and teleconferencing) was examined. Evidence from interorganizational comparisons suggests that organizational measures did not have uniform effects on employee behavior which was partially due to differences in attitude and personal income. The salience of social norms pertaining to work-related travel behavior also differed between organizations and organizational subpopulations. Differences in attitudes between employees, however, did correspond to some extent to organizational culture or focus differences at the organizational level. Finally, the results underscore the possibility that similar outcomes at the behavioral level might be the result of different underlying dynamics.Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 10/2013; 56. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of car sharing is introduced as an innovative approach to the growing transportation problems of the major metropolitan areas of the United States. After the history of car sharing in Europe and North America is outlined, three studies of the early adopters of Car Sharing Portland (CSP), the first commercial car-sharing organization in the United States, are reported. Study 1 found that these individuals were primarily motivated to join CSP because of their occasional need for a vehicle, and secondarily because of the financial savings they expected to realize by becoming members. Study 2 found that the two most important predictors of CSP trip usage were distance to the nearest vehicle station and length of membership, and that both factors had more influence on vehicle owners than on nonowners. Study 3 found that although members did not drive fewer vehicle miles after they joined CSP, 26% sold their personal vehicles and 53% were able to avoid an intended purchase. In addition, a majority of members reported increasing use of public transit, walking, and cycling. The results are discussed in terms of the potential environmental consequences of car sharing and the effects of the car-sharing experience on mobility behavior.Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 11/2003; 3(1):65 - 86.