Knowledge-based interventions for promoting conservation behavior: Literature review


ABSTRACT A sustainable planet is not possible without patterns of conserving behavior. Society's resource-cosdy lifestyles present a historic challenge. Never before have so many behaviors needed to change in so short a time. More challenging is that they must stay changed. This report discusses a potentially effective technique for achieving such goals, the use of knowledge-based narratives. The report begins by developing a theoretical framework for understanding this technique, then presents the important elements of such interventions and ends by providing examples of the use of the technique.

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    ABSTRACT: Information near the beginning of a passage has often been reported to be recalled better than information appearing later in the passage. The explanation has been that the most important information in a passage is recalled best, and this information usually appears early in a passage. This suggests that there is a linguistic convention that important information should appear in an initial position. That initial mention functions as a signal to the important, or thematic, content of a passage was demonstrated with two experiments in which readers reported what they thought was the main idea or the main item of technical passages. The first experiment unconfounded content and position by using passages in which the main idea was expressed by a sentence that appeared either first in the passage or embedded in the middle of the passage. Statements of the main idea resembled the intended theme sentence to a greater extent if this sentence appeared first than if it was embedded. The second experiment showed that statements of the main item tended to name the major referent that appeared first in the passage. The results suggest that readers base much of their abstractive processes on the semantic content of a passage, with superficial features such as initial mention serving to guide or influence these processes.
    Memory & Cognition 08/1980; 8(4):345-53. DOI:10.3758/BF03198274 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Textbooks, which serve as vehicles for knowledge acquisition in school, are often difficult to read. One aspect of difficulty is the inclusion in otherwise boring texts of "fictional inducements to attention" (Dewey, 1913). These pieces of information are usually recalled by students, whereas important generalizations are not. Recent research on this phenomenon is reported. Suggestions for modification of both learning materials and activities of learners are offered.
    Educational Psychologist 01/1992; 27(1):53-63. DOI:10.1207/s15326985ep2701_5 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Poetics 06/1980; 9:87-98. DOI:10.1016/0304-422X(80)90013-3 · 1.42 Impact Factor