Increasing Bone Sclerosis During Bortezomib Therapy in Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results of a Reduced-Dose Whole-Body MDCT Study.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to assess the frequency, location, extent, and patterns of bone sclerosis occurring in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) during bortezomib-based therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From June 2003 through December 2011, 593 whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies were performed of 79 consecutive patients receiving bortezomib. The median surveillance time was 21 months (range, 3-67 months). Baseline studies were compared with follow-up studies during therapy (follow-up 1), at the end of therapy (follow-up 2), and 12 months after cessation of bortezomib therapy (follow-up 3). We recorded any sclerotic change occurring inside or along the margins of the osteolytic lesions, in the cancellous bone, or inside preexistent medullary or extramedullary lesions. The time point of occurrence of bone sclerosis was correlated with the best hematologic response category. RESULTS. Fourteen (17.7%) patients developed focal (n = 11) or diffuse (n = 3) bone sclerosis. The time window from bortezomib initiation to radiographic detection of bone sclerosis was 8 months (SD, 7 months). Sclerosis occurred at multiple sites (n = 7) or at an isolated site (n = 7). On subsequent whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies, sclerosis further increased in seven (50%) patients. Hematologic best response during bortezomib treatment was complete response (n = 1), very good partial response (n = 2), partial response (n = 8), and stable disease (n = 3). Radiologic response at the time of sclerosis detection was partial response (n = 8), stable disease (n = 2), and progressive disease (n = 4). CONCLUSION. Bone remineralization may occur during bortezomib-based therapy for MM in a substantial proportion of patients. The extent, location, and patterns of sclerosis differ among patients and are unpredictable. Sclerosis was documented even in patients showing suboptimal hematologic response.
SourceAvailable from: Hilary Blacklock[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of 21 monthly cycles of pamidronate therapy in patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Patients with stage III myeloma and at least one lytic lesion received either placebo or pamidronate 90 mg intravenously administered as a 4-hour infusion monthly for 21 cycles. At study entry, the patients were stratified according to whether they were to receive first-line (stratum 1) or second-line (stratum 2) antimyeloma chemotherapy. Skeletal events (pathologic fracture, radiation or surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression) and hypercalcemia were assessed monthly. The results of the first nine previously reported cycles are extended to 21 cycles. Of the 392 randomized patients, efficacy could be evaluated in 198 who received pamidronate and 179 who received placebo. After 21 cycles, the proportion of patients who developed any skeletal event was lower in the pamidronate-group (P = .015). The mean number of skeletal events per year was less in the pamidronate-group (1.3) than in placebo-treated patients (2.2; P = .008). Although survival was not different between the pamidronate-treated group and placebo patients overall, stratum 2 patients who received pamidronate lived longer than those who received placebo (14 v 21 months, P = .041). Pamidronate was safe and well tolerated during the 21 cycles of therapy. Long-term monthly infusions of pamidronate as an adjunct to chemotherapy are superior to chemotherapy alone in reducing skeletal events in stage III multiple myeloma patients, and may improve the survival of patients on salvage therapy.Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/1998; 16(2):593-602. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway exerts exquisite control of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo in rodents. Structurally different inhibitors that bind to specific catalytic beta subunits of the 20S proteasome stimulated bone formation in bone organ cultures in concentrations as low as 10 nM. When administered systemically to mice, the proteasome inhibitors epoxomicin and proteasome inhibitor-1 increased bone volume and bone formation rates over 70% after only 5 days of treatment. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been shown to modulate expression of the Drosophila homologue of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 (BMP-2 and BMP-4) genes, we examined the effects of noggin, an endogenous inhibitor of BMP-2 and BMP-4 on bone formation stimulated by these compounds and found that it was abrogated. These compounds increased BMP-2 but not BMP-4 or BMP-6 mRNA expression in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that BMP-2 was responsible for the observed bone formation that was inhibited by noggin. We show proteasome inhibitors regulate BMP-2 gene expression at least in part through inhibiting the proteolytic processing of Gli3 protein. Our results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and that inhibition of specific components of this system may be useful therapeutically in common diseases of bone loss.Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2003; 111(11):1771-82. DOI:10.1172/JCI16198 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myeloma cells may secrete factors that affect the function of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, or both. We subjected purified plasma cells from the bone marrow of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and control subjects to oligonucleotide microarray profiling and biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses to identify molecular determinants of osteolytic lesions. We studied 45 control subjects, 36 patients with multiple myeloma in whom focal lesions of bone could not be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 137 patients in whom MRI detected such lesions. Different patterns of expression of 57 of approximately 10,000 genes from purified myeloma cells could be used to distinguish the two groups of patients (P<0.001). Permutation analysis, which adjusts the significance level to account for multiple comparisons in the data sets, showed that 4 of these 57 genes were significantly overexpressed by plasma cells from patients with focal lesions. One of these genes, dickkopf 1 (DKK1), and its corresponding protein (DKK1) were studied in detail because DKK1 is a secreted factor that has been linked to the function of osteoblasts. Immunohistochemical analysis of bone marrow-biopsy specimens showed that only myeloma cells contained detectable DKK1. Elevated DKK1 levels in bone marrow plasma and peripheral blood from patients with multiple myeloma correlated with the gene-expression patterns of DKK1 and were associated with the presence of focal bone lesions. Recombinant human DKK1 or bone marrow serum containing an elevated level of DKK1 inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells in vitro. The production of DKK1, an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation, by myeloma cells is associated with the presence of lytic bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma.New England Journal of Medicine 01/2004; 349(26):2483-94. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa030847 · 54.42 Impact Factor