Suicide Attempts in Women With Eating Disorders
ABSTRACT We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although perfectionism is recognized as a factor that is linked with suicide, we maintain that the role of perfectionism as an amplifier of the risk of suicide has been underestimated due to several factors. In the current article, contemporary research on the role of perfectionism in suicide is reviewed and summarized. Several themes are addressed, including: (a) consistent evidence linking suicide ideation with chronic exposure to external pressures to be perfect (i.e., socially prescribed perfectionism); (b) the roles of perfectionistic self-presentation and self-concealment in suicides that occur without warning; and (c) how perfectionism contributes to lethal suicide behaviors. We also summarize data showing consistent links between perfectionism and hopelessness and discuss the need for a person-centered approach that recognizes the heightened risk for perfectionists who also tend to experience hopelessness, psychache, life stress, overgeneralization, and a form of emotional perfectionism that restricts the willingness to disclose suicidal urges and intentions. It is concluded that when formulating clinical guidelines for suicide risk assessment and intervention and public health approaches to suicide prevention, there is an urgent need for an expanded conceptualization of perfectionism as an individual and societal risk factor. We also discuss why it is essential to design preventive programs tailored to key personality features with specific components that should enhance resilience and reduce levels of risk among perfectionists who hide behind a mask of apparent invulnerability.Review of General Psychology 09/2014; 18(3):156-172. DOI:10.1037/gpr0000011 · 1.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to review recent literature on suicide and self-injury in eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Among psychiatric diagnoses, EDs are associated with increased mortality rates, even when specialized treatment is available. Of the mortalities that are reported in individuals with EDs, suicide is among the most commonly reported causes of death. Additionally, suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors occur frequently in this clinical population. A literature search was undertaken using the databases of Medline/PubMed and PsycInfo to identify papers describing suicidality in individuals with ED diagnoses. The authors identified studies and review articles published between 2005-2013 (inclusive) that describe the relationship between EDs and suicide, and associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors, or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The initial search resulted in 1095 papers that met the a priori search criteria. After careful review, 66 papers were included. The majority of papers described clinical cohorts that were studied longitudinally. The diagnosis described most frequently in selected studies was AN. There are limited current data about the prevalence of suicide and NSSI among individuals with EDs. Among the published studies that focus specifically on the relationship between EDs and suicidality, most describe AN in more detail than other EDs. Nonetheless, rates of mortality, and specifically rates of suicide, are undeniably high in ED populations, as are the rates of self-harm. Therefore, it is critical for clinicians and caretakers to carefully evaluate these patients for suicide risk and to refer promptly for appropriate treatment.Journal of Eating Disorders 07/2014; 2(1):19. DOI:10.1186/s40337-014-0019-x
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a high level of co-occurrence of suicidality with eating disorders (EDs) but the reason for this is unknown. To test the hypothesis that suicidality and EDs share genetic risk contributing to the expression of both phenotypes. Female twins (N = 1,002) from the Australian Twin Registry, aged 28-40 years, were interviewed with diagnostic interviews. Lifetime diagnostic information relating to eating disorders [anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder, and purging disorder (PD)], suicidality (ranging transitory thoughts to suicide attempts), and major depression. Any suicidal thoughts were reported by 24% of the sample, but prevalence of lifetime suicidality among female twins with EDs was much higher (43%), presence of an ED diagnosis more than doubling likelihood of suicidality (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.63-3.31). AN and BN conveyed greatest risk of suicidality (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.06-3.87; OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 2.01-7.85, respectively). Twin phenotype correlations showed monozygotic twins had uniformly higher estimates than dizygotic counterparts. A trivariate Cholesky model indicated a common genetic influence on suicidality and ED phenotypes (but not depression), and no nonshared environmental source. Both cross twin phenotypic correlations and genetic modeling infer a common genetic pathway for suicidality and EDs, but further investigation is needed to elucidate whether this may constitute emotional dysregulation or other temperament-linked factors. Study findings also indicate that ED clients must be routinely assessed for presence of suicidality, independent of depression status. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Eating Disorders 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/eat.22421 · 3.03 Impact Factor