Risk of Hepatobiliary Cancer After Solid Organ Transplant in the United States.
ABSTRACT Studies of liver cancer risk in recipients of solid organ transplants have generally been small, yielding mixed results, and little is known about biliary tract cancers among transplant recipients.
We identified incident hepatobiliary cancers among 201,549 US recipients of solid organs, from 1987 through 2008, by linking data from the US transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing risk relative to the general population. We also calculated incidence rate ratios (RRs), comparing risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and total (intrahepatic and extrahepatic) cholangiocarcinoma among subgroups of recipients.
Of transplant recipients, 165 developed hepatobiliary cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.4). HCC risk was increased among liver recipients (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2), especially 5 or more y after transplant (SIR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Cholangiocarcinoma was increased among liver (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI,1.6-4.8) and kidney recipients (SIR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1). HCC was associated with hepatitis B virus (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-6.9), hepatitis C virus (RR, 10; 95% CI, 5.9-16.9), and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8). Cholangiocarcinoma was associated with azathioprine maintenance therapy (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). Among liver recipients, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was associated with increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, compared to the general population (SIR, 21; 95% CI, 8.2-42) and compared to liver recipients without PSC (RR, 12.3; 95% CI, 4.1-36.4).
Risks for liver and biliary tract cancer are increased among organ transplant recipients. Risk factors for these cancers include medical conditions and medications taken by recipients.
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ABSTRACT: An increased incidence of malignancy is an established complication of organ transplantation and the associated immunosuppression. In this study on cancer incidence in solid organ transplant recipients in Britain, we describe the incidence of de novo cancers in the allograft recipient, and compare these incidences following the transplantation of different organs. Data in the UK Transplant Registry held by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) were linked with data made available by the cancer registries in England, Scotland and Wales. Incidence rates in the transplanted population were then compared with the general population, using standardized incidence ratios matched for age, gender and time period. The 10-year incidence of de novo cancer in transplant recipients is twice that of the general population, with the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer being 13 times greater. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, cancer of the lip, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and anal cancer have the largest standardized incidence ratios, but the incidence of different types of malignancy differs according to the organ transplanted. Patterns in standardized incidence ratios over time since transplantation are different for different types of transplant recipient, as well as for different malignancies. These results have implications for a national screening program.American Journal of Transplantation 08/2010; 10(8):1889-96. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many immunosuppressive drugs are associated with an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma. Thirteen immunosuppressive drugs have been tested in 2-year carcinogenicity studies (abatacept; azathioprine; busulfan; cyclophosphamide; cyclosporine; dexamethasone; everolimus; leflunomide; methotrexate; mycophenolate mofetil; prednisone; sirolimus; and tacrolimus) and in additional models including neonatal and genetically modified mice; chemical, viral, ultraviolet, and ionizing radiation co-carcinogenesis, and in models with transplanted tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to outline the mechanisms by which immunosuppressive drugs can influence neoplasia, to summarize the available preclinical data on the 13 drugs, and to critically review the performance of the models. A combination of primary tumor and metastasis assays conducted with transplanted cells may provide the highest value for hazard identification and can be applied on a case-by-case basis. However, for both small molecules and therapeutic proteins, determining the relative risk to patients from preclinical data remains problematic. Classifying immunosuppressive drugs based on their mechanism of action and hazard identification from preclinical studies and a prospective pharmacovigilance program to monitor carcinogenic risk may be a feasible way to manage patient safety during the clinical development program and postmarketing.International Journal of Toxicology 09/2010; 29(5):435-66. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.International Journal of Cancer 12/2010; 127(12):2893-917. · 6.20 Impact Factor