A Randomized Controlled Comparison Between Combined Spinal- Epidural and Single- Shot Spinal Techniques in Morbidly Obese Parturients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery: Time for Initiation of Anesthesia
ABSTRACT There is no current consensus on the optimal technique for subarachnoid anesthesia in morbidly obese parturients even though some providers prefer the combined spinal-epidural (CSE) over single-shot spinal (SSS) technique. In this randomized controlled study, we compared the time required for initiation of subarachnoid anesthesia between SSS and CSE techniques in morbidly obese parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.
Morbidly obese parturients presenting for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to receive subarachnoid anesthesia performed either with a SSS or a CSE technique. The spinal procedure in the sitting position was attempted by an experienced resident for up to 10 minutes, and if unsuccessful, the attending obstetric anesthesiologist assumed control of the procedure. The primary outcome was the time it took from the insertion of the introducer needle (SSS group) or insertion of the epidural needle (CSE group) to the end of intrathecal injection of drugs (procedure time).
Forty-four patients were enrolled and completed the study. Three were excluded due to protocol violations. Of the remaining, 21 patients were in the SSS group and 20 in the CSE group. Demographic variables and mean (SD) body mass index (48.7 ± 7.6 kg/m for SSS; 49.9 ± 8.6 kg/m for CSE) were not different between groups. The median [interquartile range] for procedure time was 210 [116-692] seconds and 180 [75-450] seconds for SSS and CSE groups, respectively (P = 0.36), while the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference was -80 to +180 seconds. The first operator completed the procedure in <10 minutes in 71% of subjects in the SSS group and 95% of those in the CSE group (P = 0.09) and the 95% CI of the difference was -2% to +45%. There were more attempts to successful completion of the procedure in the SSS group (P = 0.007) with its 95% CI of the difference being +1 to +6.
Our results suggest that the CSE technique is noninferior to the SS technique in morbidly obese parturients for time of initiation of subarachnoid anesthesia and may be accomplished with fewer attempts than the SSS technique with experienced residents.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this national survey was to determine current anesthesia practices for cesarean delivery in the Czech Republic. In November 2011, we invited all departments of obstetric anesthesia in the Czech Republic to participate in a prospective study to monitor consecutive peripartum obstetric anesthesia procedures. Data were recorded online in the TrialDB database (Yale University, New Haven, CT). The response rate was 51% (49 of 97 departments); participating centers represented 60% of all births in the country during the study period. There were 1943 cases of peripartum anesthesia care, of which 1166 cases (60%) were anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Estimates were weighted based on population distribution of cesarean delivery among types of participating centers. Neuraxial anesthesia was used in 55.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.8%-58.5%); the distribution of anesthesia techniques differed among type of participating center. The rate of neuraxial anesthesia in university hospitals was 55.6% (95% CI, 51.5%-59.6%), 32.4% (95% CI, 26.4%-39.0%) in regional hospitals, and 60.7% (95% CI, 55.2%-66.0%) in local hospitals. The reasons for cesarean delivery under general anesthesia were emergency procedure (67%), refusal of neuraxial blockade by parturient (30%), failure of neuraxial anesthesia (6%), and preoperative administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (3%). Postcesarean analgesia was primarily provided by systemic opioid (66%) and nonopioid analgesics (61%), solely or in combination. Epidural postoperative analgesia was used in 14% of cases. Compared with national neuraxial anesthesia rate data published in the 1990s (6.7% in 1993), there has been an upward trend in the use of neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery during the 21st century (40.5% in 2000) in the Czech Republic. The rate of neuraxial anesthesia use for cesarean delivery has increased in the Czech Republic in the last 2 decades. However, the current rate of general anesthesia is high compared with other Western countries.Anesthesia & Analgesia 12/2014; DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000572 · 3.42 Impact Factor