Pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 12/2013; 62(25 Suppl):D117-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease in newborns, infants, and children that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the majority of pediatric patients, PH is idiopathic or associated with congenital heart disease and rarely is associated with other conditions such as connective tissue or thromboembolic disease. Incidence data from the Netherlands has revealed an annual incidence and point prevalence of 0.7 and 4.4 for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 2.2 and 15.6 for pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively, associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) cases per million children. The updated Nice classification for PH has been enhanced to include a greater depth of CHD and emphasizes persistent PH of the newborn and developmental lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The management of pediatric PH remains challenging because treatment decisions continue to depend largely on results from evidence-based adult studies and the clinical experience of pediatric experts.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating, progressive disease with increasingly debilitating symptoms and usually shortened overall life expectancy due to a narrowing of the pulmonary vasculature and consecutive right heart failure. Little is known about PH in Africa, but limited reports suggest that PH is more prevalent in Africa compared with developed countries due to the high prevalence of risk factors in the region. A multinational multicentre registry-type cohort study was established and tailored to resource-constraint settings to describe disease presentation, disease severity and aetiologies of PH, comorbidities, diagnostic and therapeutic management, and the natural course of PH in Africa. PH will be diagnosed by specialist cardiologists using echocardiography (right ventricular systolic pressure >35 mm Hg, absence of pulmonary stenosis and acute right heart failure), usually accompanied by shortness of breath, fatigue, peripheral oedema and other cardiovascular symptoms, ECG and chest X-ray changes in keeping with PH as per guidelines (European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) guidelines). Additional investigations such as a CT scan, a ventilation/perfusion scan or right heart catheterisation will be performed at the discretion of the treating physician. Functional tests include a 6 min walk test and the Karnofsky Performance Score. The WHO classification system for PH will be applied to describe the different aetiologies of PH. Several substudies have been implemented within the registry to investigate specific types of PH and their outcome at up to 24 months. Data will be analysed by an independent institution following a data analyse plan. All local ethics committees of the participating centres approved the protocol. The data will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals at national and international conferences and public events at local care providers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(10-10):e005950. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005950 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The value of echocardiography in assessing disease severity and predicting outcome in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is insufficiently defined. The aim of this study was to describe correlations between echocardiography and disease severity and outcome in pediatric PAH. Forty-three consecutive children (median age, 8.0 years; range, 0.4-21.5) with idiopathic/hereditary PAH (n=25) or PAH associated with congenital heart disease (n=18) were enrolled in a prospective single-center observational study. Anatomic and right ventricular-functional variables were obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler-echocardiography at presentation and at standardized follow-up and were correlated with measures of disease severity (World Health Organization functional class [WHO-FC], N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, hemodynamics) and lung-transplantation-free survival. Right atrial and right ventricular dimensions correlated with WHO-FC and hemodynamics (P<0.05), whereas left ventricular dimensions correlated with hemodynamics and survival (P<0.05). Right-to-left ventricular dimension ratiocorrelated with WHO-FC, hemodynamics and survival (P<0.05). Right ventricular ejection time correlated with hemodynamics and survival (P<0.05) and tended to correlate with WHO-FC (P=0.071). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion correlated with WHO-FC, mean right atrial pressure and survival (P<0.05). This early descriptive study shows that echocardiographic chararacteristics of both the right and the left heart correlate with disease severity and outcome in pediatric PAH, both at presentation and during the course of the disease. The preliminary data from this study support the potential value of echocardiography as a tool in guiding management in children with PAH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 01/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.113.000878 · 5.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The risks associated with cardiac catheterization in children with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are increased compared with adults. We reviewed retrospectively all clinical data in children with PH [mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAp) ≥25 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) ≥3 Wood units m(2)] undergoing cardiac catheterization between 2009 and 2014. Our strategy included a team approach, minimal catheter manipulation and sildenafil administration prior to extubation. Adverse events occurring within 48 h were noted. Seventy-five patients (36 males), median age 4 years (0.3-17) and median weight 14.6 kg (2.6-77 kg), underwent 97 cardiac catheterizations. Diagnoses included idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (29 %), PAH associated with congenital heart disease (52 %), left heart disease (5 %) and lung disease (14 %). Mean PAp was 43 ± 19 mmHg; mean PVRI was 9.7 ± 6 Wood units m(2). There were no deaths or serious arrhythmias. No patient required cardiac massage. Three patients who suffered adverse events had suprasystemic PAp (3/3), heritable PAH (2/3), decreased right ventricular function (3/3), and pulmonary artery capacitance index <1 ml/mmHg/m(2) (3/3) and were treatment naïve (3/3). No patient undergoing follow-up cardiac catheterization suffered a complication. In 45 % of cases, the data acquired from the follow-up cardiac catheterization resulted in an alteration of therapy. Three percent of children with PH undergoing cardiac catheterization suffered adverse events. However, there were no intra or post procedural deaths and no one required cardiac massage or cardioversion. Follow-up cardiac catheterization in patients receiving pulmonary hypertensive targeted therapy is safe and provides useful information.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s00246-015-1100-1 · 1.55 Impact Factor


Available from
May 31, 2014