Thyroid diseases in pregnancy: The importance of anamnesis

Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online (Impact Factor: 0.23). 09/2013; 29(5):1187-92. DOI: 10.12669/pjms.295.3647
Source: PubMed


Objective: Primary objective of our study was to evaluate the efficiency of detailed medical history and thyroid examination of the pregnant women presenting to our clinic from Rize province and nearby which was an endemic goiter region. It was aimed to investigate the frequency of thyroid diseases, pregnancy outcomes and the efficiency of screening with thyroid function tests during the first trimester of pregnancy as secondary endpoint.

: A prospective clinical study was conducted with 998 pregnant women between the ages of 17-48 years. In the first step of our study, a detailed medical history was obtained and a detailed thyroid gland examination was performed in all the patients (n=998). In the patients diagnosed with thyroid disease or considered to have thyroid disease with these results (n=107), thyroid diseases were evaluated with thyroid function tests and imagining methods. Analyses of socio-demographic data and nutrition were also made. In the second step, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3 and free T4 tests were performed in the first antenatal examination of the pregnant cases considered not to have thyroid disease after medical history and examination (n=891). Parameters of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and TSH receptor auto antibodies (TRAb) were investigated in the cases whose TSH, sT3 and sT4 levels were different than the reference values after examination of the endocrinologist. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Urinary iodine levels in 24 hour urine were investigated.

Results: During pregnancy, the incidence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in the whole study group were 2.8% (28/998) and 4.3% (43/998), respectively, 6.7% of the patients (67/998) had a diagnosis of thyroid disease before pregnancy. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism depending on the TSH screening results were 1.9% (17/891) and 1.1% (10/891) respectively and the incidence of overt hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were 0.2% (2/891) and 0.2% (2/891) in the pregnant cases considered not to have thyroid disease with medical history and examination.

Conclusion: Detailed medical history and family history obtained during the first trimester of pregnancy helped us to identify 6.7% of thyroid diseases among the pregnant women. This result effectively emphasizes the importance of detailed first prenatal examination regarding the thyroid.

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    ABSTRACT: The most common thyroid diseases during pregnancy are hyper- and hypothyroidism and their variants including isolated hypothyroxinemia (hypo-T4), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and different types of goiter. AITD represents the main cause of hypothyroidism during pregnancy ranging in prevalence between 5 and 20% with an average of 7.8%. The incidence of isolated hypo-T4 is about 150 times higher compared to congenital hypothyroidism. Prevalence of Graves' disease (GD) ranges between 0.1% and 1% and the Transient Gestational Hyperthyroidism Syndrome between 1 and 3%. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a sensitive marker of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Normal values have been modified recently with a downward shift. Thus, the upper normal range is now considered to be 2.5 mUI/mL in the first trimester and 3.0 mUI/mL for the remainder of pregnancy. Most studies have shown that children born to women with hypothyroidism during gestation had significantly lower scores in neuropsychological tests related to intelligence, attention, language, reading ability, school performance and visual motor performance. However, some studies have not confirmed these findings. On the other hand, multiple retrospective studies have shown that the risks of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications are directly related to the duration and inadequate control of maternal thyrotoxicosis. The latter is associated with a risk of spontaneous abortion, congestive heart failure, thyrotoxic storm, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth. Despite the lack of consensus among professional organizations, recent studies, which are based on sophisticated analyses, support universal screening in all pregnant women in the first trimester for thyroid diseases.
    Hormones (Athens, Greece) 04/2015; 14(1):59-69. DOI:10.14310/horm.2002.1574 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although for thyroid disorders are the second most prevalent endocrine abnormalities among reproductive aged women, the signs and symptoms of thyroid disease can often be masked by the physiologic changes of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify physiological signs and symptoms common to both pregnancy and thyroid disorders among a community based sample of pregnant women without thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 1600 pregnant women. A comprehensive questionnaire including questions regarding the signs and symptoms of thyroid disease was completed for subjects and relevant clinical examinations were conducted. Blood samples were taken and serum thyroxine (T4), T-uptake, thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were measured. Results: Of study participants, 63.5% had normal thyroid function. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 3.8%, and 0.8%, respectively and 29.8°% of patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of pregnant women without thyroid dysfunction, 64.8% had one or more of the signs and symptoms of thyroid disorders. Most common symptoms were fatigue (30.3%), followed by lethargy and drowsiness (20.3%). Conclusion: Normal physiological changes of pregnancy can mimic some of the signs and symptoms of thyroid disorders. The results indicated that over half of the healthy pregnant women experienced one or more of the signs and symptoms of thyroid disorders during pregnancy. Correct interpretation of signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction during normal pregnancy is critical to discriminate between physiologic and pathological changes.
    Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2015; 17(3):181-189.

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