To assess the difficulties associated with diagnosing endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) on endometrial biopsy.
We examined 25 endometrial biopsy specimens from 19 consecutive women diagnosed with either endometrial stromal nodule (n = 3) or endometrial stromal sarcoma (n = 16).
Rereview of the biopsy specimens revealed a stromal fragment suspicious for an EST in 16, of which eight had received a benign diagnosis on initial review. Most ESTs had an aglandular stromal fragment that was 5 mm or larger. Stromal fragments of this size were not encountered in the control material. Problematic areas included highly cellular leiomyoma and a lack of attention to the stromal compartment.
Most endometrial stromal tumors present with large aglandular stromal fragments (≥5 mm). These fragments are large enough that difficulties in diagnosis appear to be due to a lack of attention to the stromal compartment.
"The 2014 WHO classification scheme incorporates recent molecular findings into the classification, dividing ESTs into endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HGESS), and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS)  based on their histological appearance. However, the differentiation between the subtypes is difficult   in specimens obtained after curettage. Furthermore, the prognosis varies from benign to invasive and malignant tumors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometrial stromal tumors are rare, and endometrial stromal nodule is the least common. In the region of Middle Jutland, Denmark, only two cases are reported since 1995. The nodules are benign; nevertheless, hysterectomy is the treatment of choice. Tumor margins are required for diagnosis and essential to differentiate it from an invasive stromal sarcoma whose prognosis is very different. We report a rare case of a 38-year-old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of a uterine tumor/polyp. She presented with nausea and changes in bleeding pattern and initially had a transcervical polyp resection performed. Histopathological examination showed the presence of an endometrial stromal tumor with unclear margins, and an invasive malignant endometrial sarcoma could not be excluded. Pathological examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule with invasion, not exceeding three mm. Endometrial stromal tumors are interesting due to their rare existence and difficulties in establishing a histological diagnosis. Although endometrial stromal nodules are benign entities, they must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors, which may change the final prognosis. No preoperative diagnostic tools are at hand, and benign as well as malignant tumors are treated with hysterectomy.
07/2015; 2015(5):376817. DOI:10.1155/2015/376817
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