Youth and environmental enrichment generate serum exosomes containing miR-219 that promote CNS myelination.
ABSTRACT Although commonly considered a disease of white matter, gray matter demyelination is increasingly recognized as an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, particularly in the secondary progressive disease phase. Extent of damage to gray matter is strongly correlated to decline in memory and cognitive dysfunction in MS patients. Aging likewise occurs with cognitive decline from myelin loss, and age-associated failure to remyelinate significantly contributes to MS progression. However, recent evidence demonstrates that parabiotic exposure of aged animals to a youthful systemic milieu can promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation and improve remyelination. In the current study, we focus on this potential for stimulating remyelination, and show it involves serum exosomes that increase OPCs and their differentiation into mature myelin-producing cells-both under control conditions and after acute demyelination. Environmental enrichment (EE) of aging animals produced exosomes that mimicked this promyelinating effect. Additionally, stimulating OPC differentiation via exosomes derived from environmentally enriched animals is unlikely to deplete progenitors, as EE itself promotes proliferation of neural stem cells. We found that both young and EE serum-derived exosomes were enriched in miR-219, which is necessary and sufficient for production of myelinating oligodendrocytes by reducing the expression of inhibitory regulators of differentiation. Accordingly, protein transcript levels of these miR-219 target mRNAs decreased following exosome application to slice cultures. Finally, nasal administration of exosomes to aging rats also enhanced myelination. Thus, peripheral circulating cells in young or environmentally enriched animals produce exosomes that may be a useful therapy for remyelination. GLIA 2014;62:284-299.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis and migraine with aura are clinically correlated and both show imaging changes suggestive of myelin disruption. Furthermore, cortical myelin loss in the cuprizone animal model of multiple sclerosis enhances susceptibility to spreading depression, the likely underlying cause of migraine with aura. Since multiple sclerosis pathology involves inflammatory T cell lymphocyte production of interferon-gamma and a resulting increase in oxidative stress, we tested the hypothesis that spreading depression disrupts myelin through similar signaling pathways. Rat hippocampal slice cultures were initially used to explore myelin loss in spreading depression, since they contain T cells, and allow for controlled tissue microenvironment. These experiments were then translated to the in vivo condition in neocortex. Spreading depression in slice cultures induced significant loss of myelin integrity and myelin basic protein one day later, with gradual recovery by seven days. Myelin basic protein loss was abrogated by T cell depletion, neutralization of interferon-gamma, and pharmacological inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase-2. Conversely, one day after exposure to interferon-gamma, significant reductions in spreading depression threshold, increases in oxidative stress, and reduced levels of glutathione, an endogenous neutral sphingomyelinase-2 inhibitor, emerged. Similarly, spreading depression triggered significant T cell accumulation, sphingomyelinase activation, increased oxidative stress, and reduction of gray and white matter myelin in vivo. Myelin disruption is involved in spreading depression, thereby providing pathophysiological links between multiple sclerosis and migraine with aura. Myelin disruption may promote spreading depression by enhancing aberrant excitability. Thus, preservation of myelin integrity may provide novel therapeutic targets for migraine with aura. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Experimental Neurology 12/2014; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.12.001 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The regenerative decline of organisms during ageing is linked to the reduced proliferative activity, impaired function and exhaustion of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells. Studies using heterochronic parabiosis, involving the surgical attachment of young and old organisms so that they share a common vascular system, have revealed that the systemic environment has a profound effect on stem cell function. In particular, specific youthful rejuvenating circulatory factors reverse age-related declines in stem cell function, whereas the old milieu contains inhibitory factors that impede stem cell function in young animals. Similarly, the effects of certain dietary interventions, namely calorie restriction, also induce a more youthful cellular and molecular phenotype in ageing stem cells throughout the body. Further to this, there are key molecular pathways involved in translating the availability of nutrients into altered stem cell function, including signalling in the insulin and insulin-like growth factor and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. In this review, we discuss the potential role of dietary interventions to promote a more rejuvenating systemic milieu in order to enhance stem cell function and promote healthy ageing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Ageing Research Reviews 12/2014; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2014.11.004 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the beginning of the last decade, exosomes have been of increased interest in the science community. Exosomes represent a new kind of long distance transfer of biological molecules among cells. This review provides a comprehensive overview about the construction of exosomes, their targeting and their fusion mechanisms to the recipient cells. Complementarily, the current state of research regarding the cargo of exosomes is discussed. A particular focus was placed on the role of exosomes in the central nervous system. An increasing number of physiological processes in the brain could be associated with exosomes. In this context, it is becoming more apparent that exosomes are involved in several neurological and specifically neurodegenerative diseases. The treatment of these kinds of diseases is often difficult not least because of the blood-brain barrier. Exosomes are very stable, can pass the blood-brain barrier and, therefore, reveal bright perspectives towards diagnosis and therapeutic treatments. A prerequisite for clinical applications is a standardised approach. Features necessary for a standardised diagnosis using exosomes are discussed. In therapeutic terms, exosomes represent a promising drug delivery system able to pass the blood-brain barrier. One option to overcome the disadvantages potentially associated with the use of endogenous exosomes is the design of artificial exosomes. The artificial exosomes with a clearly defined therapeutic active cargo and surface marker ensuring the specific targeting to the recipient cells is proposed as a promising approach.Molecular Neurobiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-9054-5 · 5.29 Impact Factor