Risk Factors of Subsequent Operations After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 12/2013; 42(3). DOI: 10.1177/0363546513511416
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND:The incidence of nonrevision reoperations after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is less commonly studied and quantified. PURPOSE:To describe the incidence of short-term reoperations after primary ACLR for the 4 most common procedures and to evaluate the risk factors associated with these reoperations. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Patients who underwent ACLRs and were enrolled in an ACLR registry between February 2005 and September 2011 were evaluated. First reoperations after primary ACLR performed for the 4 most common procedures (meniscal procedures, cartilage procedures, hardware removal procedures, and arthrofibrosis procedures) were the primary end points of the study. Patient, surgical, surgeon, and hospital risk factors associated with reoperations were evaluated, and Cox regression models were employed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS:A total of 14,522 ACLRs were identified. The patients had a mean age of 29.4 ± 11.5 years and were mostly male (63.3%) and white (48.3%). The mean follow-up was 1.9 ± 1.5 years (range, 0-6.7 years), and the median time to reoperation was 301 days (interquartile range, 172-515 days). The reoperation rate per 100 person-years of follow-up was 1.1 for meniscal reoperations, 0.3 for cartilage reoperations, 0.4 for hardware removal reoperations, and 0.4 for arthrofibrosis reoperations. Meniscal repair at the index ACLR was a significant risk factor for subsequent meniscal procedures (HR, 4.19; 95% CI, 3.10-5.67). Sports medicine fellowship training of the surgeon (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.01-4.62) and older patient age (≤17 vs ≥26 years) (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.81) were significant risk factors for cartilage reoperations. Use of allografts (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.10-3.30) and female sex (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.16-2.64) were risk factors for hardware removal reoperations. Female sex (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.66-3.71) and prior surgery (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.39-6.53) were risk factors for subsequent surgery for arthrofibrosis. CONCLUSION:Overall short-term reoperation rates after ACLR are relatively low. Risk factors for subsequent surgery vary depending on the type of surgery evaluated. Some of the risk factors observed for reoperations include previous meniscal repair, female sex, allografts, prior surgery, older patient age, and being operated on by a sports medicine fellowship-trained surgeon.

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    ABSTRACT: Allograft tissue is a common graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Allograft sterilization methods vary widely across numerous commercial tissue vendors. Multiple studies, despite being limited in sample size, have suggested a higher rate of clinical failure associated with the use of allograft tissue in ACLR when compared with autograft. To examine the association of graft processing techniques, patient characteristics, and graft type with risk of revision surgery after allograft ACLR. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective cohort study was conducted that used an integrated United States health care system's ACLR registry to identify primary unilateral cases in which allografts were used. Aseptic revision was the endpoint of the study. Allograft type, processing methods (irradiation dose, AlloWash, AlloTrue, BioCleanse), and graft donor age were assessed as potential risk factors for revision, with adjustment for patient age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) by use of logistic regression analysis models. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated. A total of 5968 primary ACLR cases with allograft were included in the study, of which 3688 (61.8%) were male patients. The median age of the cohort at the time of surgery was 34.1 years (interquartile range, 24.1-42.9 years). The mean time to follow-up (±SD) was 2.1 ± 1.5 years. There were 3751 (62.9%) allograft ACLRs using soft tissue, 1188 (19.9%) with Achilles tendon, and 1029 (17.2%) with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB). Graft processing groups included BioCleanse (n = 367), AlloTrue or AlloWash (n = 2278), irradiation greater than 1.8 Mrad (n = 1146), irradiation up to 1.8 Mrad (n = 3637), and no irradiation (n = 1185). There were 156 (2.6%) aseptic revisions. After adjustment for patient age, sex, and BMI, the use of BioCleanse (HR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.36-4.40) and irradiation greater than 1.8 Mrad (HR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.08-2.49) were associated with a higher risk of revision when compared with all other methods of processing. BPTB allografts were at higher risk of revision (HR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.20-2.66) when compared with soft tissue allografts. Conversely, with every 5-year increase in age, the odds of revision were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.61-0.73) times lower. Male patients were found to be at higher risk of revision when compared with females (HR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04-2.07). The use of AlloWash or AlloTrue processing, patient BMI, and graft donor age did not affect revision rate significantly. In the largest known study of its kind examining outcome after primary allograft ACLR, graft irradiation greater than 1.8 Mrad, BioCleanse graft processing, younger patient age, male patients, and BPTB allograft were all associated with a higher risk of clinical failure and subsequent revision surgery. © 2015 The Author(s).
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