Cardiac arrhythmias are a complication of myocarditis. There are no large studies of in-hospital arrhythmia development and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute myocarditis. This was a retrospective 2-center review of patients ≤21 years hospitalized with acute myocarditis from 1996 to 2012. Fulminant myocarditis was defined as the need for inotropic support within 24 hours of presentation. Acute arrhythmias occurred at presentation and subacute after admission. Eighty-five patients (59% men) presented at a median age of 10 years (1 day to 18 years). Arrhythmias occurred in 38 patients (45%): 16 acute, 12 subacute, and 9 acute and subacute (1 onset unknown). Arrhythmias were associated with low voltages on the electrocardiogram (14 of 34, 41% vs 6 of 47, 13%; odds ratio [OR] 4.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60 to 14.31) and worse outcome (mechanical support, orthotopic heart transplant, or death; OR 7.59, 95% CI 2.61 to 22.07) but were not statistically significantly associated with a fulminant course, ST changes, initial myocardial function, lactate, creatinine level, C-reactive protein and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or troponin I level, after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Subacute arrhythmias were associated with preceding ST changes (10 of 15, 67% vs 15 of 59, 25%, OR 5.87, 95% CI 1.73 to 19.93). All patients surviving to discharge had arrhythmia resolution or control before discharge (10 on antiarrhythmic), with 1 exception (patient with complete heart block requiring a pacemaker). At 1-year follow-up, there were 3 recurrences of ventricular arrhythmias, but no arrhythmia-related mortality. In conclusion, arrhythmias are common in pediatric patients with myocarditis, occurring in nearly 1/2 of all hospitalized children and are associated with a worse outcome. Early identification of subacute arrhythmias using electrocardiographic changes may help management. A majority of patients do not require continued postdischarge arrhythmia treatment.
"Five (33.3%) of the 15 admissions in group B involved patients who mainly developed ventricular arrhythmia. In the present study, there was no significant difference in initial infusion rate, maintenance infusion rate, or duration of milrinone treatment between patients with or without arrhythmia in group B. In fact, heart failure due to myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy itself increased the vulnerability of the patients to tachyarrhythmia and conduction disturbance.24) Ichikawa et al.25) reported that 3 of 7 patients with fulminant myocarditis developed ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Milrinone is often used in children to treat acute heart failure and prevent low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Due to the lack of studies on the long-term milrinone use in children, the objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the current patterns of milrinone use for ≥3 days in infants and children with heart diseases.
Subjects and methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged <13 years who received milrinone for ≥3 days from January 2005 to December 2012. Patients' characteristics including age, sex, height, weight, and body surface area were recorded. The following parameters were analyzed to identify the clinical application of milrinone: initial infusion rate, maintenance continuous infusion rate, total duration of milrinone therapy, and concomitantly infused inotropes. The safety of milrinone was determined based on the occurrence of adverse events such as hypotension, arrhythmia, chest pain, headache, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia.
We assessed 730 admissions (684 patients) during this period. Ventricular septal defects were the most common diagnosis (42.4%) in these patients. Milrinone was primarily used after cardiac surgery in 715 admissions (97.9%). The duration of milrinone treatment varied from 3 to 64.4 days (≥7 days in 149 admissions). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening of the left ventricle improved in patients receiving milrinone after cardiac surgery. Dose reduction of milrinone due to hypotension occurred in only 4 admissions (0.5%). Although diverse arrhythmias occurred in 75 admissions (10.3%), modification of milrinone infusion to manage arrhythmia occurred in only 3 admissions (0.4%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the development of arrhythmia was not influenced by the pattern of milrinone use.
Milrinone was generally administered for ≥3 days in children with heart diseases. The use of milrinone for ≥3 days was effective in preventing low cardiac output after cardiac surgery when combined with other inotropes, suggesting that milrinone could be safely employed in pediatric patients with heart diseases.
Korean Circulation Journal 09/2014; 44(5):320-7. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.5.320 · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocarditis in children can result in significant morbidity and mortality, yet limited prognostic data exist. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pediatric patients with arrhythmias during hospitalization for acute myocarditis have worse outcomes and increased resource utilization. A retrospective study using the Pediatric Health Information System database was performed to examine the effects of clinically significant arrhythmias on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs per day. Data were obtained for children ≤18 years of age, discharged from January 1, 2004 to March 31, 2013, with a diagnosis of myocarditis. Clinically significant tachyarrhythmia was defined as supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation in patients receiving antiarrhythmic medications or cardioversion. Clinically significant bradyarrhythmia was defined as second-degree, complete, or other heart block for which a pacemaker was placed. Multivariable analyses were performed. A total of 2,041 subjects with myocarditis were identified. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 234 (11.5%) and bradyarrhythmias in 22 (1.1%). Overall mortality was 8.7%. In multivariable analyses, after considering the effects of gender, age at admission, geographic region, year and month of admission, presence of congenital heart disease or an identified virus, and use of steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, or inotropes, and after controlling for clustering by institution, tachyarrhythmias were associated with a 2.3 times increase in the odds of mortality (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.3, p < 0.001), a 58% increase in length of stay (95% confidence interval 38% to 82%, p < 0.001), and a 28% increase in costs per day (95% confidence interval 15% to 43%, p < 0.001). Bradyarrhythmia was not associated with mortality, length of stay, or costs per day. In conclusion, tachyarrhythmias are associated with significant increases in mortality and resource utilization in children with myocarditis.
The American Journal of Cardiology 08/2014; 114(9). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.07.074 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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