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    ABSTRACT: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/1999; 340(7):508-16. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed a retrospective analysis of the development of T- and B-cell functions after HLA-nonidentical T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation (BMT) performed in 193 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) at 18 European centers between December 1982 and December 31, 1993. One hundred sixteen of 193 patients were alive with evidence of engraftment 6 months after BMT. Development of T-cell function occurred earlier than B-cell function and was achieved more frequently up to the time of last follow-up. The median time to achieve normal T-cell function was 8.7 months, whereas the median time to achieve normal B-cell function was 14.9 months. Twenty-four patients died later than 6 months post-BMT, mainly due to chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and/or viral infection. Absence of T-cell reconstitution 6 months after BMT, unlike absence of B-cell reconstitution, was associated with a poor outcome. Two additional factors were associated with a poor outcome: presence of cGVHD 6 months after BMT and B- SCID versus B+ SCID. However, two of these three factors remained as significant prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis: the absence of T-cell function and the presence of cGVHD 6 months after BMT. Analysis of the factors influencing the development of immune reconstitution showed that T- and B-cell functions occurred earlier and more frequently in B+ SCID versus B- SCID patients. Acute GVHD was associated with a slower development of T-cell function at 6 months, and cGVHD had a negative influence on the development of T-cell function afterwards, but neither acute nor chronic GVHD was found to influence the development of B-cell function. Once engraftment occurred, whether patients had or had not received Busulfan in the conditioning regimen did not influence the kinetics and quality of T-cell function development. In a multivariate study, two factors were found to influence the T-cell function 6 months after BMT: type of SCID and acute GVHD. The results of this retrospective analysis should lead to new protocols adapted to SCID disease, considering that disease-related as well as BMT-related parameters influence the development of immune function and thereby long-term outcome after HLA-nonidentical T-cell-depleted BMT.
    Blood 05/1998; 91(10):3646-53. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Detailed assessment of the long-term outcome of HSCT, ie, the occurrence of clinical events and the quality and stability of immune reconstitution, is now required. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the long-term outcome of HSCT in 90-patient cohort followed for between 2 and 34 years (median, 14 years). Clinical events and immune reconstitution data were collected. Almost half the patients have experienced one or more significant clinical events, including persistent chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations, opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections, chronic human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, and a requirement for nutritional support. With the notable exception of severe HPV infection, these complications tend to become less common 15 years later after HSCT. A multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of these events correlated with non-genoidentical donors, diagnosis of Artemis SCID, and quality of immune reconstitution. In most cases, HSCT enables long-term survival with infrequent sequelae. However, the occurrence of relatively late-onset complications is a concern that requires specific means of prevention and justifies careful patient follow-up.
    Blood 02/2009; 113(17):4114-24. · 9.78 Impact Factor