Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: dietary and lifestyle factors compared to the general population.
ABSTRACT Since a poor diet is often cited as a contributor to metabolic syndrome for subjects diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, we sought to examine dietary intake, cigarette smoking, and physical activity in these populations and compare them with those for the general population.
Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 116) and schizophrenia (n = 143) were assessed for dietary intake, lifestyle habits, and metabolic syndrome and compared to age-, gender-, and race-matched subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000. Additionally, matched subgroups within the patient populations were compared to elicit any differences.
As expected, the metabolic syndrome rate was higher in the samples with bipolar disorder (33%) and schizophrenia (47%) compared to matched NHANES controls (17% and 11%, respectively), and not different between the patient groups. Surprisingly, both subjects with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia consumed fewer total calories, carbohydrates and fats, as well as more fiber (p < 0.03), compared to NHANES controls. No dietary or activity differences between patient participants with and without metabolic syndrome were found. Subjects with schizophrenia had significantly lower total and low-density cholesterol levels (p < 0.0001) compared to NHANES controls. Subjects with bipolar disorder smoked less (p = 0.001), exercised more (p = 0.004), and had lower body mass indexes (p = 0.009) compared to subjects with schizophrenia.
Counter to predictions, few dietary differences could be discerned between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and NHANES control groups. The subjects with bipolar disorder exhibited healthier behaviors than the patients with schizophrenia. Additional research regarding metabolic syndrome mechanisms, focusing on non-dietary contributions, is needed.
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The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2002; 89(5A):1C-2C. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite considerable progress in understanding disease mechanisms and risk factors, improved treatments, and public education efforts, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Obesity and physical inactivity, 2 important lifestyle-related risk factors for CVD, are prevalent in the southeastern United States and are becoming more prevalent in all racial groups and areas of the country. In reviewing these risk factors, we explored topics including prevalence and trends in population data; associated psychosocial and environmental factors; and some of the mechanisms through which these risk factors are thought to contribute to CVD. We identified significant, but as yet poorly understood, racial disparities in prevalence of obesity, low levels of physical activity, and correlates of these risk factors and examined important differences in the complex relationship between obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease risk between African American and European American women. The Jackson Heart Study will provide important and unique information relevant to many unanswered questions about obesity, physical inactivity, and obesity in African Americans.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 10/2002; 324(3):116-26. DOI:10.1097/00000441-200209000-00002 · 1.52 Impact Factor