SOX-10 can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in salivary gland myoepitheliomas, but its expression in cutaneous myoepitheliomas and in cutaneous mixed tumors with prominent myoepithelial cells has not been studied.
We assessed the staining pattern of SOX-10 in 5 cutaneous myoepitheliomas and 6 cutaneous mixed tumors with a prominent myoepithelial component among both the myoepithelial cells and cells lining lumens. Additionally, we examined the staining of S100, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) keratin cocktail, HMK903, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).
SOX-10 positivity was seen in 3/5 (60%) cutaneous myoepitheliomas and in the myoepithelial cells of all cutaneous mixed tumors. SOX-10 expression on the cells lining the glandular structures in mixed tumors was variable. All myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors were positive for S100 and negative for MiTF. Pan-keratin, HMK903, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) showed variable expression.
SOX-10 is a relatively reliable marker for staining cutaneous myoepitheliomas. Cutaneous myoepitheliomas are notoriously difficult to diagnose, and the addition of SOX-10 to the repertoire of stains that can label this tumor is of practical utility. These results futher support that cutaneous myoepitheliomas and cutaneous mixed tumors exist on a morphologic and immunophenotypic spectrum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SOX genes are transcription factors with important roles in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. The SOX family of 20 genes is responsible for regulating lineage and tissue specific gene expression patterns, controlling numerous developmental processes including cell differentiation, sex determination, and organogenesis. As is the case with many genes involved in regulating development, SOX genes are frequently deregulated in cancer. In this perspective we provide a brief overview of how SOX proteins can promote or suppress cancer growth. We also present a pan-cancer analysis of aberrant SOX gene expression and highlight potential molecular mechanisms responsible for their disruption in cancer. Our analyses indicate the prominence of SOX deregulation in different cancer types and reveal potential roles for SOX genes not previously described in cancer. Finally, we summarize our recent identification of SOX15 as a candidate tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and propose several research avenues to pursue to further delineate the emerging role of SOX15 in development and carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myoepithelial neoplasms represent a heterogenous group of tumors of which classification is incomplete and evolving. Those of the soft tissues often form genetically distinct subgroups that differ from those arising within salivary glands. Soft-tissue myoepithelial tumors (including mixed tumors that show true glandular or ductal differentiation) exhibit a spectrum of different morphologic patterns, making them difficult to distinguish from a variety of other neoplasms. They have been increasingly shown to harbor genetic fusions involving EWSR1 and partner genes that are not seen in the well-characterized tumor classes involving EWSR1 translocations. We review the spectrum of soft-tissue myoepithelial tumors, discussing recent immunohistochemical and genetic findings and the differential diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of Melan-A positive dermal cells in excisions for melanoma in situ represents a frequent conundrum for pathologists. These cells may represent superficially invasive melanoma, benign, incidental, dermal nevi, or non-specific staining of dermal melanophages. Occasionally, rare, Melan-A positive dermal cells are present which do not clearly correspond to the above three categories. Our objective was to further characterize these Melan-A positive dermal cells. To do this, immunoperoxidase staining for Melan-A and Sox10 was performed on 188 cutaneous excisions, including examples of melanoma in situ, atypical junctional melanocytic hyperplasia, and non-melanocytic tumors. These were evaluated for the presence of Melan-A and Sox10 positive dermal cells. Dermal cells, positive for both markers, were identified in 17% of the excisions. The cells were present in 10% of cases from the melanocytic group and 31% of the cases from the non-melanocytic group. These cells did not exhibit cytologic atypia and resembled neither the co-existing neoplasm nor melanophages. We conclude that positivity of these rare Melan-A positive cells for SOX10 argues that they represent true melanocytes and not non-specific staining. The absence of cytologic atypia in these cells and their presence in excisions of non-melanocytic neoplasms argues that they are benign, reactive dermal melanocytes.
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