Cytokine and chemokine patterns across one hundred days following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.
ABSTRACT We mapped the cytokine response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by assaying fifty-one cytokines and chemokines (Luminex multiplex cytokine kits, Panomics/Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) each week for one hundred days in fifty-one children receiving allogeneic (n=44) or autologous HSCT (n=7). Assay values were reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Log transformation converted MFI to clinically relevant measures (i.e., picograms/mL). We searched for potential markers of transplant complications by employing mixed treatment by subjects ANOVA (analysis of variance). Global cytokine secretion in HSCT recipients was significantly lower than in concurrent control patients (n=11). Coincident with the nadir in white blood cell count, the concentration of many cytokines declined further by the second and third week: CD40, FGF-β, ICAM1, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12P40, IL-12P70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, interferon, IP-10, MCP3, MIG, MIP1β, NGF, PAI1, PDGFBB, RANTES, resistin, sFAS ligand, TNF-α, TGF-α, TGF-β, TRAIL, VCAM1. All of these analytes (except MIG) subsequently rebounded by week 4 (coincident with engraftment and recovery of the white blood cell count), but often still remained well below the control levels. Concurrent with the collective nadir of multiple cytokines, MCP-1, GRO-α and leptin surged during weeks 2-4. High levels of leptin persisted throughout the one hundred post-transplant days. Also during weeks 2-4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) surged in children with complications, but not in those without complications. The peak in HGF was more pronounced in veno-occlusive disease (VOD). HGF and IL-6 secretion rose at least two weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of VOD or graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). From week 4 onwards in all groups, the MFI of the cytokine resistin increased to 5-15 times above concurrent control. Hepatocyte growth factor has now emerged in three or more biomarker discovery efforts for GVHD (and in our population, for VOD as well). Hepatocyte growth factor (with or without IL-6) should be investigated as a potential predictive biomarker of VOD or GVHD. Alternatively, the hyper-inflammatory 'signature' provided by a multi-cytokine assay may be predictive.
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ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression in "classical" CD14++CD16- (M1), "intermediate" CD14++CD16+ (M2), and "non-classical" CD14+CD16++ (M3) monocytes reflects the activation state of these cells. The full spectrum of monocyte and its function is still unknown. The present pilot study describes the monocyte subpopulations and their human leukocyte antigen DR expression during the post-transplant period as well as during transplant-related adverse events of 30 pediatric patients and young adults with hemato-oncological malignancies and immunodeficiency disorders in comparison to healthy children and young adults. A significant change of the human leukocyte antigen DR expression in all three monocyte subpopulations during the period after bone marrow transplantation depending on the time after transplantation and adverse events could be recognized. Prior to and during sepsis or bacterial infection, a significant decrease in human leukocyte antigen DR expression occurred. A significant increase on CD14++CD16- monocytes could be observed during graft-versus-host disease. The alterations of human leukocyte antigen DR expression on the monocyte subpopulations during adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be a sign of changes in the capacity of these subpopulations. Moreover, human leukocyte antigen DR expression in monocyte subpopulations may be used to monitor treatment responses in these entities.Annals of Hematology 12/2014; 94(5). DOI:10.1007/s00277-014-2287-6 · 2.40 Impact Factor
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 11/2014; 135(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.010 · 11.25 Impact Factor