An empirical comparison of market efficiency: Electronic marketplaces vs. traditional retail formats
ABSTRACT Researchers have found that price dispersion and market inefficiency exists in electronic marketplaces. Little attention has been bestowed to explore difference in market efficiency between traditional and electronic marketplaces. This study integrates both product and channel preference factors to analyze differences in market efficiency between electronic and traditional shopping environments. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to calculate market efficiency for single-channel and multi-channel shoppers. Results show that market efficiencies vary across consumer segments and products. In summary, this paper enhances understanding of market efficiency by incorporating behavioral segment and product characteristics into the explanatory framework.
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ABSTRACT: The authors examine the implications of electronic shopping for consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. They assume that near-term technological developments will offer consumers unparalleled opportunities to locate and compare product offerings. They examine these advantages as a function of typical consumer goals and the types of products and services being sought and offer conclusions regarding consumer incentives and disincentives to purchase through interactive home shopping vis-a-vis traditional retail formats. The authors discuss implications for industry structure as they pertain to competition among retailers, competition among manufacturers, and retailer-manufacturer relationships.Journal of Marketing 07/1997; 61(3). DOI:10.2307/1251788 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data Envelopment Analysis has now been extensively applied in a range of empirical settings to identify relative inefficiencies, and provide targets for improvements. It accomplishes this by developing peer groups for each unit being operated. The use of categorical variables is an important extension which can improve the peer group construction process and incorporate "on-off" characteristics, e.g., presence of drive-in window or not in a banking network. It relaxes the stringent need for factors to display piecewise constant marginal productivities. In so doing, it substantially strengthens the credibility of the insights obtained. The paper treats the cases when the categorical variable can be controllable or uncontrollable by the manager, for the cases of technical and scale inefficiency. The approach is illustrated using real data.Management Science 12/1986; 32(12):1613-1627. DOI:10.1287/mnsc.32.12.1613 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In management contexts, mathematical programming is usually used to evaluate a collection of possible alternative courses of action en route to selecting one which is best. In this capacity, mathematical programming serves as a planning aid to management. Data Envelopment Analysis reverses this role and employs mathematical programming to obtain ex post facto evaluations of the relative efficiency of management accomplishments, however they may have been planned or executed. Mathematical programming is thereby extended for use as a tool for control and evaluation of past accomplishments as well as a tool to aid in planning future activities. The CCR ratio form introduced by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, as part of their Data Envelopment Analysis approach, comprehends both technical and scale inefficiencies via the optimal value of the ratio form, as obtained directly from the data without requiring a priori specification of weights and/or explicit delineation of assumed functional forms of relations between inputs and outputs. A separation into technical and scale efficiencies is accomplished by the methods developed in this paper without altering the latter conditions for use of DEA directly on observational data. Technical inefficiencies are identified with failures to achieve best possible output levels and/or usage of excessive amounts of inputs. Methods for identifying and correcting the magnitudes of these inefficiencies, as supplied in prior work, are illustrated. In the present paper, a new separate variable is introduced which makes it possible to determine whether operations were conducted in regions of increasing, constant or decreasing returns to scale (in multiple input and multiple output situations). The results are discussed and related not only to classical (single output) economics but also to more modern versions of economics which are identified with "contestable market theories."Management Science 09/1984; 30(9):1078-1092. DOI:10.1287/mnsc.30.9.1078 · 2.52 Impact Factor