The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue
1 Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland. Journal of Women's Health
(Impact Factor: 2.05).
12/2013; 23(3). DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2013.4387
Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV.
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this descriptive study were to (1) describe assault and care characteristics and (2) determine differences in assault and care characteristics between black women and white women who sought emergency care following sexual violence.
A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used to examine forensic examination data characterizing the incident history reported by women victims of sexual violence at the time of a forensic nurse examination. Examinations occurred at an urban university-affiliated hospital emergency department (ED) over a 2-year period.
Of the women (n = 173) seeking care in the ED, 58.4% were black and 41.6% were white. When compared with white women, black women were more likely to have weapons used in their assaults (42.6% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.00) and to be assaulted in the city rather than the suburbs (82.8% vs. 56.5%, p < 0.00). In general, substance use prior to the assault was reported to have occurred in 49.1% of the victims and 41% of the assailants; however, differences existed in the type and pattern of substance use by race/ethnicity. Black victims were more likely to report use of illicit drugs (28.7% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.01). White women were more likely than black women to report personal alcohol use prior to their assault, with significant differences for drinking by victims (47.2% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.01) or assailant use of alcohol (47.2% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.00). White women were more likely than black women to report both they and the assailant had used some type of substance (38.9 vs. 21.8, p = 0.01). Black women were more likely to arrive to the ED via EMS services (45.5% vs. 29.2%, p = 0.03). There were no reported differences in care characteristics by race.
Findings from this study suggest that differences exist in assault characteristics between black and white women. Use of substances, including alcohol, plays an important role in sexual violence in women and should be a focus of preventive intervention initiatives when conducting a forensic examination. Both coordinated responses and comprehensive, individualized care by specially trained providers are important in the emergency care of minority women who are victims of recent sexual violence.
Journal of Women's Health 02/2010; 19(3):453-61. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2009.1484 · 2.05 Impact Factor
Available from: Mary Ellsberg
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ABSTRACT: In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence-ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence. This evidence suggests that women-centred, advocacy, and home-visitation programmes can reduce a woman's risk of further victimisation, with less conclusive evidence for the preventive effect of programmes for perpetrators. In low-income and middle-income countries, there is a greater research focus on violence prevention, with promising evidence on the effect of group training for women and men, community mobilisation interventions, and combined livelihood and training interventions for women. Despite shortcomings in the evidence base, several studies show large effects in programmatic timeframes. Across different forms of violence, effective programmes are commonly participatory, engage multiple stakeholders, support critical discussion about gender relationships and the acceptability of violence, and support greater communication and shared decision making among family members, as well as non-violent behaviour. Further investment in intervention design and assessment is needed to address evidence gaps.
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The Lancet 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61703-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
Available from: Daniel R Rosell
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ABSTRACT: Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental
healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala–frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will
also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.
CNS spectrums 05/2015; 20(03):1-26. DOI:10.1017/S109285291500019X · 2.71 Impact Factor
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