The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience and Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.
Adipogenesis, the conversion of precursor cells into adipocytes, is associated with obesity and is mediated by glucocorticoids acting via hitherto poorly characterized mechanisms. Dexras1 is a small G protein of the Ras family discovered on the basis of its marked induction by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. We show that Dexras1 mediates adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is abolished with Dexras1 depletion, whereas overexpression of Dexras1 elicits adipogenesis. Adipogenesis is markedly reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Dexras1-deleted mice, whereas adiposity and diet-induced weight gain are diminished in the mutant mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological activity of tissue specific stem cell is under the control of their specific microenvironment and the exogenous chemicals derived from digestive tract can be one of the constructing factors of that. It is suggested that the extract of brown algae Ishige okamurae has antioxidant-, apoptosis induction-, and antiinflammatory- effects. On the other hand, a few studies have shown that antioxidant assist inhibition of accumulation of fat. So we studied the effect of the extract of I. okamura on the cellular activity and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte to adipose cell. The viability of cell was analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cell was analyzed after induction in the induction medium containing the I. okamurae extract. The cellular activity was high compared with the vehicle and 0.05 mM caffeine in all groups of I. okamurae extract treated cells. The extract of I. okamura inhibited accumulation of lipids in 10 and 50 μg/ml. The expression of the marker genes for adipocyte differentiation coincided with cytochemical results. These results suggest that the extract of I. okamurae increases the cellular viability of adipose precursor cells. On the other hand, it suppresses the differentiation of preadipocyte to adipocyte and accumulation of lipids in concentration-dependent manners. It may be possible that the major component of the extract can be applied in the control of adipose tissuegenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activators of G-protein Signaling (AGS) are a family of accessory proteins that were discovered as modulators of heterotrimeric G-protein subunits. The primary aim of the present study was to localize Group I and II AGS proteins and determine the renal expression profile using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, during normal and injured states of the kidney. Group I AGS1 was found to be predominantly localized to the proximal tubule, Group II AGS3 and AGS5 were exclusively localized to the distal tubular segments, and Group II AGS6 was ubiquitously expressed in every nephron segment of the rodent kidney. In rat kidneys following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), Group I AGS1 mRNA was dramatically increased after 24 h by fivefold (P < 0.05), whereas Group II AGS3 and AGS4 mRNA was significantly decreased at the same time point (P < 0.05). No significant change in the transcript levels were detected at other time points for any of the AGS genes between control and IRI groups. In polycystic diseased kidneys, mRNA levels for AGS3, AGS4 and AGS6 was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by 75-80 % in PCK rat kidneys. The identification of Group I and II AGS mRNA and protein in the kidney may provide insight into the potential mechanism of action during normal and varying states of renal disease or injury.
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