Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers in the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups.
We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis.
Participants were 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4-24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated, r = .84; NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd, r = .39 and r = .34 (all p values <.05). The number of days smoked per month was not associated with any biomarker levels.
Our findings demonstrate that nondaily smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%-50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time to first cigarette (TTFC) of the day is an indicator of nicotine intake in adults and adolescents. However, the relation between TTFC and biological markers of nicotine addiction and health risk in youths has not been well described. The current study examined whether an earlier TTFC predicts higher levels of a tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridal)-1 (NNAL), in regular and intermittent adolescent smokers and if this relation is mediated by nicotine intake (measured by cotinine) or cigarettes per day (CPD).
A cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative subsample of adolescents.
A general community sample from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey.
215 adolescents in the United States between the ages of 12 and 19 who reported smoking at least once in the 5 days prior to data collection.
The primary outcome measure was urinary levels of NNAL.
In both regular and intermittent smokers, earlier TTFC was dose-dependently associated with higher levels of NNAL (p's < 0.03 in both cases). TTFC had an indirect effect on NNAL, mediated by nicotine intake (cotinine) in both regular (β = -.08, SE = .03, 95% CI [-.15, -.04]), and intermittent (β = -.02, SE = .01, 95% CI [-.05, -.002]) smokers. CPD was not found to be an important mediator of the relation between TTFC and NNAL.
Time between waking and the first cigarette of the day is correlated in daily and non-daily adolescent smokers with overall nicotine and therefore carcinogen intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Nondaily smokers experience adverse effects from tobacco use, yet they have been understudied compared to daily smokers. Understanding how reasons for smoking (RS) differ by smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity could inform tailored interventions.
A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American [AA], Latino, and White) across smoking level (native nondaily, converted nondaily, daily light, and daily moderate/heavy).
A 7-factor structure of a 20-item Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) was confirmed (each subscale alpha > 0.80). Each factor of the MRSS varied by smoking level, with nondaily smokers endorsing all RS less frequently than daily smokers (p < .0001). The 4 smoker subgroups incrementally differed from one another (p < .05) with several exceptions between converted nondaily and daily light smokers. Males reported stronger RS on 5 out of 7 reasons (p < .05). Females had higher scores on tension reduction/relaxation (p < .0001). Latinos reported stronger RS than Whites and AAs on all reasons (p < .05) except for tension reduction/relaxation (p > .05). AAs and Whites were comparable on all RS (p > .05).
The present study highlights considerable variability across smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity in strength of RS. Addressing subgroup differences in RS may contribute to more sensitive and effective prevention and treatment efforts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
The prevalence of light and intermittent smoking (LITS) is increasing as the prevalence of heavier smoking continues to fall. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in LITS over time among Blacks, Hispanic/Latinos (Latinos) and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites).
Data from the California Tobacco Surveys from 1990, 1992, and 1996 (Time 1 [T1]) were combined and compared to combined data from 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 (Time 2 [T2]). T1 participants (N = 50,424) included Blacks (n = 3,029), Latinos (n = 7,910), and Whites (n = 39,485). T2 participants (N = 53,005) included Blacks (n = 5,460), Latinos (n = 14,273), and Whites (n = 33,246).
LITS increased by a factor of 12.9% to a rate of 79.6% (76.0-83.2) among Latinos, by 19.4% to a rate of 74.4% (70.9-77.9) among Blacks, and by 51.7% to a rate of 48.9% (47.5-50.3) among Whites. In unadjusted analyses at T1, females were more likely to be LITS than males across ethnic groups. At T2, this sex difference was maintained among Whites, but not Blacks and Latinos. Females were significantly more likely to be LITS than males when controlling for demographic variables.
The present study found that LITS rates increased over time for male and female Black, Latino and White adults. There is a need for increased tobacco control attention to LITS across all ethnic groups, but with additional focus on Blacks, Latinos, and women who have the highest rates of LITS.
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