ROS1 and ALK Fusions in Colorectal Cancer, with Evidence of Intratumoral Heterogeneity for Molecular Drivers
ABSTRACT Activated ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinases, through gene fusions, has been found in lung adenocarcinomas and are highly sensitive to selective kinase inhibitors. This study aimed at identifying the presence of these rearrangements in human colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) specimens using a 4-target, 4-color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to simultaneously determine the genomic status of ALK and ROS1. Among the clinical CRC specimens analyzed, rearrangement-positive cases for both ALK and ROS1 were observed. The fusion partner for ALK was identified as EML4 and the fusion partner for one of the ROS1-positive cases was SLC34A2, the partner for the other ROS1-positive case remains to be identified. A small fraction of specimens presented duplicated or clustered copies of native ALK and ROS1. In addition, rearrangements were detected in samples that also harbored KRAS and BRAF mutations in two of the three cases. Interestingly, the ALK-positive specimen displayed marked intra-tumoral heterogeneity and rearrangement was also identified in regions of high-grade dysplasia. Despite the additional oncogenic events and tumor heterogeneity observed, elucidation of the first cases of ROS1 rearrangements and confirmation of ALK rearrangements support further evaluation of these genomic fusions as potential therapeutic targets in CRC. Implications: ROS1 and ALK fusions occur in colorectal cancer and may have substantial impact in therapy selection.
SourceAvailable from: Francisco G. La Rosa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ALK-EML4 translocation is an established driver aberration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with reported predilection for cases with signet ring histology. We assessed the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in signet ring cancers arising in the stomach and colon. Histologically confirmed cases of signet ring adenocarcinoma of the stomach or the colon were identified. The presence of the classic ALK and EML4 fusion gene was initially determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using two previously validated antibodies, ALK1 clone (1:100; DAKO) and 5A4 (Novocastra, Leica Biosystems) along with positive controls of ALK-translocated lung cancer. We employed 42 cases of signet ring carcinoma diagnosed between 2001 and 2011; 25 gastric and 17 colon cancer. Median age 63.3 years; male/female 17/25; race, black 47.5%, white 47.5%, others, 5%; stage I, 21.4%; stage II, 31%; stage III, 26.2%; stage IV, 21.4%. One of 42 cases (2.3%) was positive for ALK translocation by FISH using the standard criteria of at least 15% positive cells for the break-apart signal (50-70 cells enumerated per case). Using a less restrictive cut-off of 10% positive cells, 7 cases (16%) were considered possibly positive. None of the 'possibly positive' cases was found to harbor ALK translocation by another molecular testing approach (IHC). IHC with two previously validated monoclonal antibodies showed 0 of 42 (0%) cases positive. ALK gene rearrangement is very rare in gastrointestinal cancers and enrichment strategy focusing on signet ring cell histology did not significantly improve the detection rate.
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ABSTRACT: There have been significant advances in the understanding of the biology and treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the past few years. A number of molecularly targeted agents are in the clinic or in development for patients with advanced NSCLC. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms of acquired resistance after exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with oncogene addicted NSCLC. The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled to study comprehensively genomic alterations in lung cancer. Finally, early results from immune checkpoint inhibitors are very encouraging. This review summarizes recent advances in the area of cancer genomics, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy.Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 01/2015; 10(1 Suppl 1):S1-S63. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000405 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: ROS1 gene fusions cause several cancers by constitutively activating the ROS1 tyrosine kinase receptor. ROS1-targeted inhibitor therapy improves survival in the approximately 1% to 2% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma with ROS1 gene fusions. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard diagnostic procedure for detecting ROS1 rearrangements, we studied immunohistochemistry (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: ROS1 IHC was performed on a selected cohort of 33 lung adenocarcinoma whole tissue specimens with alterations in the EGFR (n = 5), KRAS (n = 5), ERBB2 (HER2) (n = 3), ROS1 (n = 6), ALK (n = 5), and RET (n = 3) genes and pan-negative (n = 6) detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and FISH. RESULTS: In the cohort of 33 specimens, both ROS1 gene fusion using RT-PCR and high ROS1 protein expression using IHC were detected in 6 specimens. Of these 6 specimens, 5 were also positive by FISH for ROS1 gene rearrangements. All 27 lung cancer specimens that were negative for ROS1 rearrangements by genetic testing had no to low ROS1 protein expression. CONCLUSION: We have optimized ROS1 IHC and scoring to provide high sensitivity and specificity for detecting ROS1 gene rearrangements in whole tissue. ROS1 IHC could be a practical and cost-effective method to screen for ROS1 gene rearrangements.Clinical Lung Cancer 10/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cllc.2014.10.003 · 3.22 Impact Factor