Risk of Impingement and Third-body Abrasion With 28-mm Metal-on-metal Bearings

Department of Orthopaedics, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA, .
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.77). 12/2013; 472(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11999-013-3399-3
Source: PubMed


Concerns have been raised about the sequelae of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, retrieval studies, which offer the best insight into the clinically relevant mechanisms of MoM wear, have followed predictable trends to date such as indicting cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metallurgy, cup design, high conformity between the head and cup, "steep cups," "microseparation," and "edge wear."
We wished to evaluate a set of retrieved 28-mm MoM THA for signs of (1) cup-to-stem impingement; (2) normal wear pattern and concomitant stripe damage on femoral heads that would signify adverse wear mechanics; and (3) well-defined evidence of third-body scratches on bearings that would indicate large abrasive particles had circulated the joint space.
Ten 28-mm MOM retrievals were selected on the basis that femoral stems were included. Revision surgeries at 3 to 8 years were for pain, osteolysis, and cup loosening. CoCr stems and the MoM bearings were produced by one vendor and Ti6Al4V stems by a second vendor. All but two cases had been fixed with bone cement. We looked for patterns of normal wear and impingement signs on femoral necks and cup rims. We looked for adverse wear defined as stripe damage that was visually apparent on each bearing. Wear patterns were examined microscopically to determine the nature of abrasions and signs of metal transfer. Graphical models recreated femoral neck and cup designs to precisely correlate impingement sites on femoral necks to cup positions and head stripe patterns.
The evidence revealed that all CoCr cup liners had impinged on either anterior or posterior facets of femoral necks. Liner impingement at the most proximal neck notch occurred with the head well located and impingement at the distal notch occurred with the head rotated 5 mm out of the cup. The hip gained 20° motion by such a subluxation maneuver with this THA design. All heads had stripe wear, the basal and polar stripes coinciding with cup impingement sites. Analysis of stripe damage revealed 40 to 100-μm wide scratches created by large particles ploughing across bearing surfaces. The association of stripe wear with evidence of neck notching implicated impingement as the root cause, the outcome being the aggressive third-body wear.
We found consistent evidence of impingement, abnormal stripe damage, and evidence of third-body abrasive wear in a small sample of one type of 28-mm MoM design. Impingement models demonstrated that 28-mm heads could lever 20° out of the liners. Although other studies continue to show good success with 28-mm MoM bearings, their use has been discontinued at La Pitie Hospital.
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    ABSTRACT: Third-body wear is believed to be one trigger for adverse results with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings. Impingement and subluxation may release metal particles from MOM replacements. We therefore challenged MOM bearings with relevant debris types of cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA). Cement flakes (PMMA), CoCr and Ti6Al4V particles (size range 5 µm to 400 µm) were run in a MOM wear simulation. Debris allotments (5 mg) were inserted at ten intervals during the five million cycle (5 Mc) test. In a clean test phase (0 Mc to 0.8 Mc), lubricants retained their yellow colour. Addition of metal particles at 0.8 Mc turned lubricants black within the first hour of the test and remained so for the duration, while PMMA particles did not change the colour of the lubricant. Rates of wear with PMMA, CoCr and Ti6Al4V debris averaged 0.3 mm(3)/Mc, 4.1 mm(3)/Mc and 6.4 mm(3)/Mc, respectively. Metal particles turned simulator lubricants black with rates of wear of MOM bearings an order of magnitude higher than with control PMMA particles. This appeared to model the findings of black, periarticular joint tissues and high CoCr wear in failed MOM replacements. The amount of wear debris produced during a 500 000-cycle interval of gait was 30 to 50 times greater than the weight of triggering particle allotment, indicating that MOM bearings were extremely sensitive to third-body wear. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:29-37. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
    03/2014; 4(3):29-37. DOI:10.1302/2046-3758.43.2000332
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    ABSTRACT: Particles of bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate), CoCr and Ti6Al4V were compared for their abrasion potential against CoCr substrates. This appears to be the first study utilizing CoCr and Ti6Al4V particulates to abrade CoCr bearings and the first study profiling the morphology of third-body abrasive wear scratches in a hip simulator. The 5 mg debris allotments (median size range 140-300 µm) were added to cups mounted both inverted and anatomically with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings in a 10-cycle, hip simulator test. Surface abrasion was characterized by roughness indices and scratch profiles. Compared to third-body abrasion with metal debris, polymethyl methacrylate debris had minimal effect on the CoCr surfaces. In all, 10 cycles of abrasion with metal debris demonstrated that roughness indices (Ra, PV) increased approximately 20-fold from the unworn condition. The scratch profiles ranged 20-108 µm wide and 0.5-2.8 µm deep. The scratch aspect ratio (W/PV) averaged 0.03, and this very low ratio indicated that the 140 µm CoCr beads had plastically deformed to create wide but shallow scratches. There was no evidence of transfer of CoCr beads to CoCr bearings. The Ti64 particles produced similar scratch morphology with the same aspect ratio as the CoCr particulates. However, the titanium particulates also showed a unique ability to flatten and adhere to the CoCr, forming smears and islands of contaminating metal on the CoCr bearings. The morphology of scratches and metal transfer produced by these large metal particulates in the simulator appeared identical to those reported on retrieved metal-on-metal bearings.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 07/2014; 228(7). DOI:10.1177/0954411914538782 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impingement in 28mm THA may be a common pathway to failure. In support, metal-on-polyethylene (MPE) bearings have shown impingement damage in 45-65% of cases. Likewise, a recent retrieval study of ceramic-on-ceramic (COC) retrievals noted impingement occurred in 83% of 28mm and 32mm COC retrievals and a recent metal-on-metal retrieval study indicated that 96% of large-diameter metal-on-metal (MOM) retrievals showed evidence of impingement. One of the sequelae to routine impingement of a total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be rim damage to the acetabular cup and notching damage of the femoral neck. If carried over hundreds of thousands of gait cycles as a result of repetitive sub-clinical subluxation (RSS), considerable damage can result. The fact that COC and MOM retrievals showed such consistent impingement damage is not by itself proof that such led to revision. Nevertheless, such evidence may indicate why some 28mm MOM cases showed good results over 7-15 years and others showed lesser success.
    Reconstructive Review 07/2015; 5(2). DOI:10.15438/rr.5.2.110
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