Repair of Tracheal Aspergillosis Perforation Causing Tension Pneumothorax

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: .
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.85). 12/2013; 96(6):2256-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.06.064
Source: PubMed


Tracheobronchial aspergillosis is a rare entity mainly observed in immune-compromised patients or those who have undergone transplantation. It may cause airway ulcerations or bleeding. We report the case of a 17-year-old patient receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with right-sided tension pneumothorax. Chest tube drainage revealed a massive air leak without reexpansion of the lung, and bronchoscopy showed a 15- × 15-mm defect of the distal trachea related to aspergillosis infection. The defect was closed by an intrathoracic transposition of a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, which was sutured into the debrided defect followed by temporary endotracheal stenting and antifungal medication.

Download full-text


Available from: Jonathan Mengu Ma Tooh, Jul 17, 2014
12 Reads
  • Source
    Thorax 08/1995; 50(7):812-3. DOI:10.1136/thx.50.7.812 · 8.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prospective assessment of pedicled extrathoracic muscle flaps for the closure of large intrathoracic airway defects after noncircumferential resection in situations where an end-to-end reconstruction seemed risky (defects of > 4-cm length, desmoplastic reactions after previous infection or radiochemotherapy). From 1996 to 2001, 13 intrathoracic muscle transpositions (6 latissimus dorsi and 7 serratus anterior muscle flaps) were performed to close defects of the intrathoracic airways after noncircumferential resection for tumor (n = 5), large tracheoesophageal fistula (n = 2), delayed tracheal injury (n = 1) and bronchopleural fistula (n = 5). In 2 patients, the extent of the tracheal defect required reinforcement of the reconstruction by use of a rib segment embedded into the muscle flap followed by temporary tracheal stenting. Patient follow-up was by clinical examination bronchoscopy and biopsy, pulmonary function tests, and dynamic virtual bronchoscopy by computed tomographic (CT) scan during inspiration and expiration. The airway defects ranged from 2 x 1 cm to 8 x 4 cm and involved up to 50% of the airway circumference. They were all successfully closed using muscle flaps with no mortality and all patients were extubated within 24 hours. Bronchoscopy revealed epithelialization of the reconstructions without dehiscence, stenosis, or recurrence of fistulas. The flow-volume loop was preserved in all patients and dynamic virtual bronchoscopy revealed no significant difference in the endoluminal cross surface areas of the airway between inspiration and expiration above (45 +/- 21 mm(2)), at the site (76 +/- 23 mm(2)) and below the reconstruction (65 +/- 40 mm(2)). Intrathoracic airway defects of up to 50% of the circumference may be repaired using extrathoracic muscle flaps when an end-to-end reconstruction is not feasible.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 02/2004; 77(2):397-404; discussion 405. DOI:10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01462-0 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prospective evaluation of tracheo-carinal airway reconstructions using pedicled extrathoracic muscle flaps for closing airway defects after non-circumferential resections and after carinal resections as part of the reconstruction for alleviation of anastomotic tension. From January 1996 to June 2006, 41 patients underwent tracheo-carinal airway reconstructions using 45 extrathoracic muscle flaps (latissimus dorsi, n=25; serratus anterior, n=18; pectoralis major, n=2) for closing airway defects resulting from (a) bronchopleural fistulas (BPF) with short desmoplastic bronchial stumps after right upper lobectomy (n=1) and right-sided (pleuro) pneumonectomy (n=13); (b) right (n=9) and left (n=3) associated with partial carinal resections for pre-treated centrally localised tumours; (c) partial non-circumferential tracheal resections for pre-treated tracheal tumours, tracheo-oesophageal fistulas (TEF) and chronic tracheal injury with tracheomalacia (n=11); (d) carinal resections with the integration of a muscle patch in specific parts of the anastomotic reconstruction for alleviation of anastomotic tension (n=4). The airway defects ranged from 2 x 1 cm to 8 x 4 cm and involved up to 50% of the airway circumference. The patients were followed by clinical examination, repeated bronchoscopy, pulmonary function testing and CT scans. The minimum follow-up time was 6 months. Ninety-day mortality was 7.3% (3/41 patients). Four patients (9.7%) sustained muscle flap necrosis requiring re-operation and flap replacement without subsequent mortality, airway dehiscence or stenosis. Airway dehiscence was observed in 1/41 patients (2.4%) and airway stenosis in 1/38 surviving patients (2.6%) responding well to topical mitomycin application. Follow-up on clinical grounds, by CT scans and repeated bronchoscopy, revealed airtight, stable and epithelialised airways and no recurrence of BPF or TEF in all surviving patients. Tracheo-carinal airway defects can be closed by use of pedicled extrathoracic muscle flaps after non-circumferential resections and after carinal resections with the muscle patch as part of the reconstruction for alleviation of anastomotic tension.
    European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 03/2008; 33(2):276-83. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcts.2007.10.026 · 3.30 Impact Factor