Varicella-zoster virus vaccine, successes and difficulties.
ABSTRACT Despite intensive efforts in recent decades to develop preventive or therapeutic vaccines against diseases caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), or varicella-zoster virus (VZV), members of the Alpha herpes virinae subfamily of human herpes viruses,a safe and efficient vaccine has been approved for commercial development only against VZV. The VZV vaccine contains a live attenuated strain, OKA. It consists of amixture of at least 13 subpopulations of viruses, all with deletions, insertions or mutations in the genome; the most common mutations are observed in the open reading frame 62 (ORF62). Experience over more than 30 years in Japan, the USA and other countries where VZV vaccination is provided has demonstrated that the vaccine is safe and the effectiveness of two doses compared to unvaccinated children is 98-99%. When administered in a higher dose to stimulate the declining cell-mediated immunity, the same vaccine has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of herpes zoster in immunocompetent individuals older than 60 years. Vaccination of immuno-compromised subjects with this VZV vaccine is problematic and various strategies need to be explored. Differences in the pathomechanisms of infection, latency and immune evasion of VZV and HSV, together with host genetic factors, may explain the availability of the successful VZV vaccine and the failures of the past HSV vaccine candidates.
SourceAvailable from: Hakim Djaballah[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes lyse target cells after T-cell-receptor-mediated recognition of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules presenting peptides. Antigenic peptides are generated in the cytoplasm by proteasomes and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by peptide transporters (TAP). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) expresses a cytoplasmic protein, ICP47, which seems to interfere with such immune surveillance by mediating retention of 'empty' class I molecules in the ER. By expressing ICP47 in HeLa cells under an inducible promoter, we show that ICP47 efficiently inhibits peptide transport across the ER membrane such that nascent class I molecules fail to acquire antigenic peptides. This inhibition was overcome by transfecting murine TAP. Further, we demonstrate that ICP47 colocalizes and physically associates with TAP within the cell. Inhibition of peptide translocation by a viral protein indicates a previously undocumented potential mechanism for viral immune evasion.Nature 07/1995; 375(6530):415-8. DOI:10.1038/375415a0 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT(-) virus but not with LAT(+) viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in cultured cells. Thus, LAT promotes neuronal survival after HSV-1 infection by reducing apoptosis.Science 03/2000; 287(5457):1500-3. DOI:10.1126/science.287.5457.1500 · 31.48 Impact Factor
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2000; 19(2):169-70. DOI:10.1097/00006454-200002000-00020 · 3.14 Impact Factor