Association of APOE, GCPII and MMP9 polymorphisms with common diseases and lipid levels in an older adult/elderly cohort.
ABSTRACT Background and Aims: The characterization of candidate gene polymorphisms in elderly populations is an important tool for the identification of risk factors for age-related diseases and conditions. We aimed to genotype the APOE polymorphisms (rs429358 and rs7412), rs61886492 (1561C>T) and rs202720 of GCPII gene and rs3918242 (-1562C>T) of MMP9 gene in an older-adult/elderly cohort from Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso Brazil as well as to characterize risk factors for morbidities and conditions affecting this cohort. Methods: The studied population consisted of 570 subjects from Cuiaba city, Brazil, who were subjected to clinical interviews and blood collection for laboratory examinations and DNA extraction. Restriction fragment length polymorphism Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR), sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR) and TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay were used for genotyping. Results: The frequencies of APOE ε2 and ε4 were 6.6% and 14.8%, respectively, and the frequencies of GCPII rs61886492 T allele, GCPII rs202720 C allele and MMP9 rs3918242 T allele were, respectively, 3.0%, 26.6% and 10.1%. Significant associations between APOE ε2 allele with lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were found. In addition, MMP9 rs3918242 T allele was associated with higher LDL-cholesterol levels, suggesting a link between lipid metabolism alteration and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The present findings contributed to characterize risk factors specific for the studied population and to better understand the molecular physiopathology of common morbidities and conditions affecting older-adult/elderly people.
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ABSTRACT: A new Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) designed specifically for rating depression in the elderly was tested for reliability and validity and compared with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). In constructing the GDS a 100-item questionnaire was administered to normal and severely depressed subjects. The 30 questions most highly correlated with the total scores were then selected and readministered to new groups of elderly subjects. These subjects were classified as normal, mildly depressed or severely depressed on the basis of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for depression. The GDS, HRS-D and SDS were all found to be internally consistent measures, and each of the scales was correlated with the subject's number of RDC symptoms. However, the GDS and the HRS-D were significantly better correlated with RDC symptoms than was the SDS. The authors suggest that the GDS represents a reliable and valid self-rating depression screening scale for elderly populations.Journal of Psychiatric Research 01/1982; 17(1):37-49. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein E polymorphism is a genetic determinant of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Its status as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), either through a causal relation with LDL cholesterol level or independently, is less clearly established. Data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial were used to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E phenotype on risk of coronary events. Of the 12,866 randomized participants, 619 were studied in a nested case-control design. CAD deaths (93) and nonfatal myocardial infarctions (113) were matched to 412 controls. The allele frequencies of apolipoprotein E in the white subset (epsilon 2 = 0.06, epsilon 3 = 0.79, and epsilon 4 = 0.15) were very similar to other nonselected white American populations, and the relation of apolipoprotein E on total and LDL cholesterol was generally similar to that seen in other studies, with the epsilon 2 allele being associated with lower and the epsilon 4 allele with higher total and LDL cholesterol. Allele frequencies were not the same for patients and control subjects. The presence of epsilon 4 was associated with an increased risk of CAD that was most evident for fatal cases. There was no relation between changes in LDL cholesterol over time during the trial and apolipoprotein E phenotypes.The American Journal of Cardiology 02/1993; 71(2):160-5. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of serum lipids, lipoprotein fractions, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, B and E on mortality from vascular and nonvascular causes in an unselected elderly population. The random sample of 347 community-living individuals aged 65 years or older was obtained in 1982. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, and apo A-1, B and E were determined at baseline. After the 11-year follow-up, 199 of the participants had died, and 148 were still alive. Mortality data from vascular and nonvascular causes by the end of 1993 were obtained from official registers. In the univariate analysis, a low total cholesterol level was associated with death due to both vascular and nonvascular causes (P value for trend, .021 and .0027, respectively). After the adjustment for other risk factors, the inverse association between total cholesterol and vascular mortality disappeared, but low total cholesterol was still a significant predictor of death due to nonvascular causes. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) of death due to nonvascular causes for those with elevated total cholesterol (5.1 to 6.5, 6.6 to 8.0, and > 8.0 mmol/L) compared with the reference group (< or = 5.0 mmol/L) were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 1.2), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0), and 0.2 (0 to 0.8), respectively. Neither concentrations of HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, nor apo B were associated with vascular or nonvascular mortality. On the other hand, low concentration of apo A-1 predicted vascular death. The RR for the lowest tertile was 1.6 (1.1 to 2.5) compared with the highest tertile. Furthermore, the occurrence of the apo E e4 allele was associated with increased risk of vascular mortality (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.2), but the risk was not related to the levels of lipids, lipoproteins, or other apolipoproteins at baseline. Nonvascular mortality also tended to be predicted by the presence of the e4 allele (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.5). In an unselected elderly population, the allelic variation of apo E, i.e., the presence of the e4 allele, and a low concentration of apo A-1 were more accurate indicators of vascular mortality than total cholesterol or lipoprotein fractions. The risk associated with the apo E polymorphism is unrelated to dyslipidemia.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/1997; 17(7):1224-32. · 5.53 Impact Factor