Laryngopharyngeal dysfunction independent of vocal fold palsy in infants after aortic arch interventions.
ABSTRACT Laryngopharyngeal dysfunction contributes significantly to morbidity, length of stay, and increased resource utilization after aortic arch interventions in infants. Previous studies have focused on postoperative evaluation of selected symptomatic patients with vocal fold palsy (VFP). A prospective evaluation of laryngopharyngeal function was undertaken to assess and determine its importance in perioperative management.
A routine preoperative and postoperative assessment was done by flexible fiber optic laryngoscopy, oral feeding evaluation (OFE), and modified barium swallow (mBS) on 101 infants undergoing 113 procedures on the aortic arch (2003 to 2011). The primary outcome was the ability to take full nutrition orally at discharge.
Preoperative OFE was abnormal in 33.3% of patients. VFP occurred in 39.3%, 30 of 57 patients had an abnormal OFE. Factors predictive of abnormal postoperative feeding evaluation included genetic syndromes (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; confidence interval [CI], 1.1-23.2) and preoperative mechanical ventilation (OR, 24.1; 95% CI, 2.5-226.6). An abnormal postoperative OFE was highly predictive (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-27.1) of an abnormal postoperative mBS. There was a trend toward decreased long-term survival among patients who were intubated or had an abnormal preoperative feeding evaluation (P = .07).
Postoperative laryngopharyngeal dysfunction is common among infants undergoing aortic arch interventions, and is largely independent of vocal fold function. Preoperative evaluation demonstrates significant intrinsic abnormalities in sensory and motor function. Routine, comprehensive, multimodality preoperative and postoperative evaluation is required to identify at-risk children and reduce morbidity and resource utilization.
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ABSTRACT: Surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) continues to be a frequent procedure among extremely preterm infants. Recent evidence indicates surgical closure is associated with worse outcomes than after medical closure. Left vocal fold paralysis is a known complication of this surgery, but there is little information available on the impact of this specific complication on long-term outcomes of these infants. In this case series, we describe the clinical course of three sets of multiple births, in which at least one infant underwent surgical closure of the PDA and subsequently developed feeding and/or breathing difficulties due to left vocal fold paralysis, and compare to their siblings who did not sustain this complication. The case series suggests that some long-term morbidities associated with surgical closure of the PDA may be attributable to this specific complication.Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 12/2008; 28(11):782-5. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the rate of recovery of pediatric vocal fold paralysis (VFP) after cardiac surgery. Retrospective case series from January 2000 to 2005 at 4 tertiary care pediatric hospitals. A total of 109 children with VFP were identified. Of 80 patients with follow-up >3 months, 28 (35%) recovered vocal fold function with a median time to diagnosis of recovery of 6.6 months. Fifty-two (65%) patients had persistent vocal fold paralysis with a median follow-up time of 16.4 months. Twenty-five (45%) of 55 patients demonstrated aspiration or laryngeal penetration with modified barium swallow. Twenty-nine (27%) of the 109 patients underwent surgical intervention for their airway, feeding, or voice. Pediatric VFP is not an uncommon complication after cardiac surgery and can result in serious sequelae. This study demonstrates a 35% rate of recovery, 45% rate of aspiration, and 27% rate of complications that require surgical intervention.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 12/2007; 137(5):780-4. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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