Association between Maternal Anaemia and Postpartum Depression in an Urban Sample of Pregnant Women in Iran

Family Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.04). 09/2013; 31(3):398-402. DOI: 10.3329/jhpn.v31i3.16832
Source: PubMed


The aim of this prospective study was to determine the relationship between anaemia during pregnancy and postpartum depression. Two hundred eighty-one non-anaemic mothers with singleton and low-risk pregnancy and no history of antidepressant-use were studied. Demographic and reproductive data at week 20 were obtained. Mothers were followed up and haemoglobin (Hb) was checked at delivery. Iranian version of Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed 4-6 weeks after delivery. Mean age of the mothers was 26.6+/-4 years. The prevalence of postpartum depression according to EPDS was 5.5%. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that Hb <11 g/dL at delivery would increase the chance of postpartum depression (OR 4.64; 95% CI 1.33-16.08). The results show that diagnosis and treatment of physiologic factors, especially anaemia, would reduce the risk of postpartum depression.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. METHODS: The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. RESULTS: The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. CONCLUSION: In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122729. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122729 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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