Article

Association between Maternal Anaemia and Postpartum Depression in an Urban Sample of Pregnant Women in Iran

Family Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.39). 09/2013; 31(3):398-402. DOI: 10.3329/jhpn.v31i3.16832
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this prospective study was to determine the relationship between anaemia during pregnancy and postpartum depression. Two hundred eighty-one non-anaemic mothers with singleton and low-risk pregnancy and no history of antidepressant-use were studied. Demographic and reproductive data at week 20 were obtained. Mothers were followed up and haemoglobin (Hb) was checked at delivery. Iranian version of Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed 4-6 weeks after delivery. Mean age of the mothers was 26.6+/-4 years. The prevalence of postpartum depression according to EPDS was 5.5%. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that Hb <11 g/dL at delivery would increase the chance of postpartum depression (OR 4.64; 95% CI 1.33-16.08). The results show that diagnosis and treatment of physiologic factors, especially anaemia, would reduce the risk of postpartum depression.

0 Followers
 · 
48 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Data were collected by interviewing females 8-12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%). Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8%) had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5%) females were anemic during pregnancy (P≤0.05). These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.74; P=0.03). Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15-0.95), but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 02/2014; 10:311-6. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S57556 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of postpartum depression worldwide varies from 0.5% to 60.8% in the first 12 months postpartum using self-reported questionnaire. This review aims to update the current magnitude of postpartum depression based on self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview and explore its associated factors in developed and developing countries. A literature search conducted between 2005 and 2014 identified 203 studies, of which 191 used self-reported questionnaire in 42 countries and 21 used structured clinical interview in 15 countries. Nine studies used a combination of self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview. The prevalence of postpartum depression varies from 1.9% to 82.1% in developing countries and from 5.2% to 74.0% in developed countries using self-reported questionnaire. Structured clinical interview shows a much lower prevalence range from 0.1% in Finland to 26.3% in India. Antenatal depression and anxiety, previous psychiatric illness, poor marital relationship, stressful life events, negative attitude towards pregnancy, and lack of social support are significant contributors to postpartum depression. All studies are included irrespective of the methodological quality, such as small sample size and their inclusion could affect the generalizability of the results. The current prevalence of postpartum depression is much higher than that previously reported, and similar risk factors are documented. A culturally sensitive cut-off score with adequate psychometric properties of the screening instruments should be available. In future studies, examining the physical, biological, and cultural factors in qualitative studies and in those with adequate methodological qualities is recommended. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 175C:34-52. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.041 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from