Antibody persistence 1 year after pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination and immunogenicity of subsequent seasonal influenza vaccine among adult organ transplant patients
ABSTRACT We investigated the antibody persistence in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients 1 year after immunization with two doses of monovalent AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. We also assessed the boosting effect of the seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine 2010 (TIV/10) that contained the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. A total of 49 SOT recipients and 11 healthy controls were included. After a blood sample was obtained to assess the persistent immunity, one dose of TIV/10 was administered and another blood sample was collected 1 month after vaccination. A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies were measured using a haemagglutination inhibition assay. The percentage of SOT recipients with protective titres decreased between 1 month and 10-14 months after the monovalent influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, from 79% (n = 38) to 47% (n = 23) (P = 0.02). The corresponding numbers for the control group were 100% and 63%, respectively (P = 0.008). After the TIV/10 boosting dose, the number of SOT recipients with protective titres increased from 47% (n = 23) to 71% (n = 35) (P = 0.2). All the controls reached a protective titre level. The median titre rise was significantly higher among controls when compared to SOT recipients (P = 0.0036). No rejection or adverse events were seen. The results show an obvious need for vaccine boosting doses in the SOT patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01256931).
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ABSTRACT: Whether influenza vaccination in solid-organ transplant recipients is efficacious remains a controversial issue. Furthermore, theoretical concerns have been raised regarding the safety of vaccination as it might trigger rejection of the allograft. The present prospective trial is aimed at investigating the antibody response and safety of influenza vaccination in renal transplant recipients (RTR). A total of 165 RTR and 41 healthy volunteers were vaccinated with a standard trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies were quantified before and 1 month after vaccination. Seroprotection (SP) and seroresponse (SR) were defined as a titer > or =40 and a 4-fold rise in HI titer, respectively. Similar SR rates were observed in both groups. Postvaccination SP rates in RTR amounted to 92.7%, 78.7% and 82.9% for A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B, respectively. High baseline SP rates, most probably reflecting frequent preimmunizations, explain partly the high postvaccination SP rates. SR rate was independently and inversely associated with baseline SP rate. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) usage was associated with a 2.6-5-fold lower SR. Nonetheless, these patients showed good postvaccination SP rates. A booster dose did not enhance SP or SR rates. Influenza vaccination neither affected allograft function nor caused rejection episodes. In conclusion, influenza vaccination is efficacious and safe in renal transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 02/2008; 8(2):332-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.02066.x · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been speculated that influenza vaccination of renal allograft recipients could be associated with de novo production and/or increased titers of anti-HLA antibodies (HLA-Ab). To directly address this issue, we recruited 66 stable renal transplant recipients and 19 healthy volunteers during the 2005-2006 vaccination campaign. At day 0 and day 30 following vaccination, HLA-Ab were screened and in parallel influenza-specific antibody and T-cell responses were assessed. Humoral postvaccinal responses to A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not B strain, were less frequent in transplanted patients than in control subjects. Significant expansion of influenza-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells was observed at similar frequencies in patients and controls. There was no correlation between cellular and humoral postvaccinal responses. No impact of sex, age or immunosuppressive regimen could be evidenced. Vaccination was not associated with any significant change in preexisting or de novo anti-HLA sensitization. No episode of allograft rejection was recorded in any of the patients. Our results suggest that flu vaccination is safe in stable renal transplanted patients. Larger studies are needed for definitive statistical proof of the safety and effectiveness, with regard to the quality of the immune response, of yearly influenza vaccination in immunosuppressed patients.American Journal of Transplantation 08/2009; 9(10):2346-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02787.x · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has emerged, causing illness globally, primarily in younger age groups. To assess the level of preexisting immunity in humans and to evaluate seasonal vaccine strategies, we measured the antibody response to the pandemic virus resulting from previous influenza infection or vaccination in different age groups. Using a microneutralization assay, we measured cross-reactive antibodies to pandemic H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1) in stored serum samples from persons who either donated blood or were vaccinated with recent seasonal or 1976 swine influenza vaccines. A total of 4 of 107 persons (4%) who were born after 1980 had preexisting cross-reactive antibody titers of 40 or more against 2009 H1N1, whereas 39 of 115 persons (34%) born before 1950 had titers of 80 or more. Vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines resulted in an increase in the level of cross-reactive antibody to 2009 H1N1 by a factor of four or more in none of 55 children between the ages of 6 months and 9 years, in 12 to 22% of 231 adults between the ages of 18 and 64 years, and in 5% or less of 113 adults 60 years of age or older. Seasonal vaccines that were formulated with adjuvant did not further enhance cross-reactive antibody responses. Vaccination with the A/New Jersey/1976 swine influenza vaccine substantially boosted cross-reactive antibodies to 2009 H1N1 in adults. Vaccination with recent seasonal nonadjuvanted or adjuvanted influenza vaccines induced little or no cross-reactive antibody response to 2009 H1N1 in any age group. Persons under the age of 30 years had little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies to the pandemic virus. However, a proportion of older adults had preexisting cross-reactive antibodies.New England Journal of Medicine 10/2009; 361(20):1945-52. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0906453 · 54.42 Impact Factor