Daily diaries are a useful way of measuring fluctuations in pain-related symptoms. However, traditional diaries do not assure the gathering of data in real time, not solving the problem of retrospective assessment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) by means of electronic diaries helps to improve repeated assessment. However, it is important to test its feasibility in specific populations in order to reach a wider number of people who could benefit from these procedures.
The present study compares the compliance and acceptability of an electronic diary running on a smartphone using a crossover design for a sample with a specific pain condition, fibromyalgia and low familiarity with technology. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) paper diary – smartphone diary and (2) smartphone diary – paper diary, using each assessment method for 1 week.
The findings of this study showed that the smartphone diary made it possible to gather more accurate and complete ratings. Besides, this method was well accepted by a sample of patients with fibromyalgia referred by a public hospital, with an important proportion of participants with low level of education and low familiarity with technology.
The findings of this study support the use of smartphones for EMA even in specific populations with a specific pain condition, fibromyalgia and with low familiarity with technology. These methods could help clinicians and researchers to gather more accurate ratings of relevant pain-related variables even in populations with low familiarity with technology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life-a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling). We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app) technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI). While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.
Frontiers in Psychology 05/2015; 1(6). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00481 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed pilot feasibility and validity of a mobile health (mHealth) system for tracking mood-related symptoms after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
A prospective, repeated measures design was used to assess compliance with daily ecological momentary assessments (EMA) conducted via a smartphone application over an 8-week period.
An mHealth system was developed specifically for individuals with TBI and utilized previously validated tools for depressive and anxiety symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7). Feasibility was assessed in 20 community-dwelling adults with TBI via an assessment of compliance, satisfaction and usability of the smartphone applications. The authors also developed and implemented a clinical patient safety management mechanism for those endorsing suicidality.
Participants correctly completed 73.4% of all scheduled assessments, demonstrating good compliance. Daily assessments took <2 minutes to complete. Participants reported high satisfaction with smartphone applications (6.3 of 7) and found them easy to use (6.2 of 7). Comparison of assessments obtained via telephone-based interview and EMA demonstrated high correlations (r = 0.81-0.97), supporting the validity of conducting these assessments via smartphone application in this population.
EMA conducted via smartphone demonstrates initial feasibility among adults with TBI and presents numerous opportunities for long-term monitoring of mood-related symptoms in real-world settings.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.