The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available Level I and Level II literature on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a therapeutic intervention in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA).
A systematic review of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and www.clinicaltrials.gov was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies that evaluated the clinical efficacy of PRP versus a control injection for knee OA. A random-effects model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP at 24 weeks by use of validated outcome measures (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, visual analog scale for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and overall patient satisfaction).
Six Level I and II studies satisfied our inclusion criteria (4 randomized controlled trials and 2 prospective nonrandomized studies). A total of 577 patients were included, with 264 patients (45.8%) in the treatment group (PRP) and 313 patients (54.2%) in the control group (hyaluronic acid [HA] or normal saline solution [NS]). The mean age of patients receiving PRP was 56.1 years (51.5% male patients) compared with 57.1 years (49.5% male patients) for the group receiving HA or NS. Pooled results using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scale (4 studies) showed that PRP was significantly better than HA or NS injections (mean difference, -18.0 [95% confidence interval, -28.8 to -8.3]; P < .001). Similarly, the International Knee Documentation Committee scores (3 studies) favored PRP as a treatment modality (mean difference, 7.9 [95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 12.1]; P < .001). There was no difference in the pooled results for visual analog scale score or overall patient satisfaction. Adverse events occurred more frequently in patients treated with PRP than in those treated with HA/placebo (8.4% v 3.8%, P = .002).
As compared with HA or NS injection, multiple sequential intra-articular PRP injections may have beneficial effects in the treatment of adult patients with mild to moderate knee OA at approximately 6 months. There appears to be an increased incidence of nonspecific adverse events among patients treated with PRP.
Level II, systematic review of Level I and II studies.
"Two recent trials of HA versus PRP injections for knee OA demonstrated the superiority of PRP  . However, PRP is less effective for patients with more severe OA . Injection of autologous stem cells into the knee is a potentially promising treatment for moderate to severe OA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
We investigated the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) with and without an adipose graft, for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA).
Treatment registry data for patients who underwent BMC procedures with and without an adipose graft were analyzed. Pre- and posttreatment outcomes of interest included the lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), the numerical pain scale (NPS), and a subjective percentage improvement rating. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine the effects of treatment type adjusting for potential confounding factors. The frequency and type of adverse events (AE) were also examined.
840 procedures were performed, 616 without and 224 with adipose graft. The mean LEFS score increased by 7.9 and 9.8 in the two groups (out of 80), respectively, and the mean NPS score decreased from 4 to 2.6 and from 4.3 to 3 in the two groups, respectively. AE rates were 6% and 8.9% in the two groups, respectively. Although pre- and posttreatment improvements were statistically significant, the differences between the groups were not.
BMC injections for knee OA showed encouraging outcomes and a low rate of AEs. Addition of an adipose graft to the BMC did not provide a detectible benefit over BMC alone.
BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014:370621. DOI:10.1155/2014/370621 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Bidirectional interactions between cells and fluidic surroundings regulate cellular functions and maintain tissue or organ architecture. Accordingly, the synovial fluid is the primary source of environmental signals and determines to a great extent the molecular interactions within the joint capsule, both in homeostasis and pathology.
We provided an update on hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concepts necessary to build the rationale for creating a combined treatment. The information is based on a PubMed search using the terms 'platelet-rich plasma', 'hyaluronic acid', 'knee pathology', 'knee osteoarthritis' (OA).
In OA, a deleterious fluidic microenvironment is established, with presence of HA fragments, catabolic enzymes and inflammatory molecules. The central concept underlying intra-articular injection is to modify deleterious fluidic microenvironments. PRP administration has shown pain remission and function improvement, but less than half of the patients showed clinically significant improvement. PRP exceeds HA, the comparator used in PRP clinical trials, albeit both HA and PRP alleviate symptoms in mild-to-moderate OA patients. Combining PRP and HA may benefit from their dissimilar biological mechanisms and help in controlling delivery and presentation of signaling molecules. Three armed randomized studies, using both HA and PRP as comparators, will provide information about the impact of this approach.
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