Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Men in Maricopa County Jails for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea to Avert Infections in Women
ABSTRACT Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections can lead to serious and costly sequelae in women, but sequelae in men are rare. In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, female jail inmates in Maricopa County (Phoenix area), Arizona, are screened for these infections. Owing to lack of evidence of screening benefits in men, male inmates are tested and treated based on symptoms only.
We developed a probabilistic simulation model to simulate chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Maricopa County jail male inmates and transmissions to female partners per year. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening as the cost per infection averted. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and the Correctional Health Services.
Compared with symptom-based testing and treating strategy, screening male arrestees of all ages and only those 35 years or younger yielded the following results: averted approximately 556 and 491 cases of infection in women at a cost of approximately US $1240 and $860 per case averted, respectively, if screened during physical examination (between days 8 and 14 from entry to jail), and averted approximately 1100 and 995 cases of infections averted at a cost of US $1030 and $710 per infection averted, respectively, if screened early, within 2 to 3 days from entry to jail.
Screening of male inmates incurs a modest cost per infection averted in women compared with symptom-based testing. Screening in correctional settings can be used by public health programs to reduce disease burden, sequelae, and associated costs.
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ABSTRACT: Young adults entering jail are at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as chlamydia, are released quickly, and are unlikely to be tested for STDs elsewhere. San Francisco jails performed targeted chlamydia screening and treatment since 1996. To determine this program's impact on chlamydia positivity among females attending neighborhood medical clinics. During 1997-2004, jail testing density, a measure of the proportion of persons from year 2000 census blocks that were tested in jail, was compared by neighborhood. Chlamydia positivity among females aged 15 to 25 years were compared at 2 clinics serving areas with different jail testing densities. Of persons offered screening at intake, 89% accepted. A total of 42,952 tests were performed among 23,561 persons in jail (45% black, 73% male). A total of 2765 (6.4%) tests were positive for chlamydia; 81% of chlamydial infections were treated. Jail testing density significantly correlated with neighborhood female chlamydia rates. Mean jail testing density at Clinic S, calculated by using the residence of persons tested for chlamydia, was 7 times greater than that at Clinic O. Chlamydia positivity declined at Clinic S from 16.1% to 7.8% (Ptrend <0.001). No significant change occurred at Clinic O in chlamydia (4.7% in 1997 and 2004, Ptrend = 0.81). In San Francisco, screening young adults in jail focused testing on persons from neighborhoods with high chlamydia rates. Jail screening started immediately before chlamydia declines among young females at a clinic serving neighborhoods with high jail testing density. These programs might help reduce community prevalence and racial/ethnic disparities in STDs.Sexually transmitted diseases 04/2008; 36(2 Suppl):S22-8. DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31815ed7c8 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A survey of the sexual behaviour of gonorrhoea patients in Newark was undertaken to evaluate parameters within a model of gonorrhoea transmission. Modelling work aimed to explain observed epidemiological patterns and to explore the potential impact of interventions. Reported behaviours, along with values derived from the literature, were used within a standard deterministic model of gonorrhoea transmission, where the population was stratified according to sex and rates of sex-partner change. The behaviours reported, particularly among women, are insufficient by themselves to explain the continued existence of gonorrhoea within the population. The majority of symptomatic patients seek treatment within a few days, and report that they do not have unprotected sex while symptomatic. The proportion of patients with low numbers of sex partners suggests that sexual mixing between people categorized according to sexual behaviour is near random. To explain the persistence of gonorrhoea, there must be some patients who, when infected, do not seek care in public clinics. In addition, gonorrhoea incidence in the model is sensitive to change, such that very small reductions in risk behaviour could lead to its elimination. This does not accord with the observed failure of many interventions to eliminate infection, suggesting that the modelled infection is too sensitive to change. The model, which has been influential in gonorrhoea epidemiology, is not consistent with the observed epidemiology of gonorrhoea in populations. Alternative models need to explore the observed stability of gonorrhoea before robust modelling conclusions can be drawn on how best to control infection. However, the current results do highlight the potential importance of asymptomatic infections and infections in those who are diseased and do not attend public health services. Screening and contact-tracing to identify asymptomatic infections in both men and women will be more effective in reaching those who maintain the infection within the community rather than simply treating symptomatic cases.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 05/1999; 354(1384):787-97. DOI:10.1098/rstb.1999.0431 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The United States has the highest prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the developed world. Control strategies should address the most frequent reasons why curable sexually transmitted diseases are not treated. We approached 1,631 persons ages 18-29 in various sites and offered them screening for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection and surveys regarding past genitourinary symptoms. For those with past symptoms we abstracted medical records or conducted additional interviews. From these data we estimated the total number of persons who had gonorrhea or chlamydial infections in the previous year, the proportion treated, and the primary reasons for nontreatment. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 2.3% and that of chlamydial infection was 10.1%. We estimate that 45 and 77% of all cases of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, respectively, were never symptomatic and that 86 and 95% of untreated cases of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, respectively, were untreated because they were never symptomatic. The remaining 14 and 5% of untreated cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, respectively, were not treated because persons did not receive medical care for symptoms. The primary reason that gonorrhea and chlamydial infections are untreated is that infected persons never have symptoms. The most effective method to control these sexually transmitted diseases is routine screening at high-volume sites.Preventive Medicine 05/2003; 36(4):502-9. DOI:10.1016/S0091-7435(02)00058-0 · 2.93 Impact Factor