Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support Among Children with Adenovirus Infection: A Review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry
ABSTRACT Overwhelming adenovirus infection requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support carries a high mortality in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to retrospectively review data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry for pediatric patients with adenovirus infection and define for this patient cohort: 1) clinical characteristics, 2) survival to hospital discharge, and 3) factors associated with mortality before hospital discharge. In this retrospective registry study, pediatric patients with adenovirus infection requiring ECMO support identified in an international ECMO registry from 1998 to 2009 were compared for clinical characteristics (demographics, pre-ECMO variables, and complications on ECMO) between survivors and nonsurvivors to hospital discharge. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to compare clinical characteristics among survivors and nonsurvivors. For children requiring ECMO support for adenovirus, the survival at hospital discharge is 38% (62/163). Among neonates (<31 days of age), the survival at hospital discharge was only 11% (6/54). Among patient factors, neonatal age (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-10.87), a decrease of 0.1 unit in pre-ECMO pH (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.3-2.42), the presence of sepsis (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 1.47-14.15), and increased peak inspiratory pressures (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08) were all independently associated with in-hospital mortality. ECMO complications independently associated with in-hospital mortality were presence of pneumothorax (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.19-10.7), pH less than 7.2 (OR, 5.94; 95% CI, 1.04-34.1), and central nervous system hemorrhage (OR, 25.36; 95% CI, 1.47-436.7). In this retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with adenovirus infection supported on ECMO, survival to hospital discharge was 38% but was much lower in neonates. Neonatal presentation, degree of acidosis, sepsis, and increased PIP are factors present before decisions are made regarding a trial of ECMO, whereas pneumothorax and brain hemorrhage were ECMO-related complications independently associated with mortality.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine our recent experience with children who had acute respiratory failure managed with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) from 1991 to 1993, to determine whether a change in survival rate had occurred in comparison with our previous experience. Historic and prospective cohort study. A tertiary pediatric referral center. All non-neonatal pediatric patients treated with ECLS for severe, life-threatening respiratory failure were examined. Overall, 25 patients have been managed with this life-support technique in the past 28 months. Eighty-four percent (21/25) were transferred to our medical center because of failure of conventional mechanical ventilation therapy. Descriptive data of the recent cohort were as follows (mean +/- SD): age 60 +/- 75 months, weight 23.6 +/- 24.8 kg, and male gender 44%. Duration of intubation before ECLS was 5.8 +/- 2.7 days. Arterial blood gas values and ventilator settings immediately before ECLS were as follows: fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.98 +/- 0.08; mean airway pressure, 21.6 +/- 6.2 cm H2O; peak inspiratory pressure, 45.5 +/- 9.6 cm H2O; positive end-expiratory pressure, 11.0 +/- 4.3 cm H2O; partial pressure of oxygen (arterial), 56 +/- 20 mm Hg (7.4 +/- 2.7 kilopascals); partial pressure of carbon dioxide (arterial), 46 +/- 17 mm Hg (6.1 +/- 2.3 kPa); and estimated alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference, 572 +/- 81 mm Hg (76.3 +/- 10.8 kPa). Mean duration of ECLS was 373 +/- 259 hours. Of 25 recently treated patients, 22 (88%) survived their life-threatening respiratory illness to be discharged home; this represented a statistically improved survival rate in comparison with the 58% survival rate previously reported by us for similar patients (p < 0.05). Comparisons of arterial blood gas and mechanical ventilation-related variables measured 24 hours before and again immediately before bypass were similar in the two cohorts with the exception of higher mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (arterial) 24 hours before bypass in the recent treatment group. For our entire experience, younger age groups had greater survival rates; 100% of infants less than 1 year of age survived. Treatment with ECLS is an evolving pulmonary rescue therapy with an 88% survival rate in our recent experience. The survival rate has improved to levels that may not greatly improve in the near future, especially for patients less than 1 year of age. Better patient selection or improved management strategies or both may be responsible for the improved patient outcome.Journal of Pediatrics 07/1994; 124(6):875-80. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(05)83174-9 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral pneumonia is the most common indication for pediatric extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Despite this fact, no previous studies have directly stratified patient outcome according to viral etiology. Using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry database, the authors reviewed the national experience of patients undergoing ECLS with culture or serologically demonstrated viral pneumonia and compared outcome parameters according to viral etiology. Patients differed with respect to age and weight according to the viral type. Patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, median age 3 months), herpes simplex virus (HSV, 0.13 months), cytomegalovirus (CMV, 2.5 months), and adenovirus (0.6 months) were younger than those with other viruses (5.5 months). The patient groups did not significantly differ with respect to pre-ECLS Pao2 mean airway pressure (MAP), oxygenation index (OI), mode, or duration of ECLS. The overall survival of patients with viral pneumonia was 57%, although patients with RSV or CMV were found to have a 67% survival. Patients infected with HSV and adenovirus had a significantly lower survival rate (31% and 25%, respectively) when compared with those with RSV. In addition RSV pneumonia was associated with fewer cardiovascular complications than several of the other viral types. When comparison was made between survivors and nonsurvivors, a higher last pre-ECLS MAP and increased incidence of elevated creatinine and renal failure requiring dialysis were noted among nonsurvivors. ECLS remains an important modality in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric patients with respiratory failure secondary to viral pneumonia. The survival rate of these patients varies according to the type of viral infection.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/1997; 32(2):232-6. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A retrospective review of adenovirus infections at Texas Children's Hospital during 1990–1996 was performed to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical course, management, and outcome of disseminated adenovirus disease (DAD) in children. DAD with multiorgan involvement occurred in 11 (2.5%) of 440 adenovirus-infected patients. Six (54%) of the 11 were immunocompromised and 5 (45%) were immunocompetent. Mortality was 83% among the immunodeficient, 60% in the immunocompetent, and 73% overall. Two (28%) of the 7 patients receiving immunoglobulins with or without antivirals and 3 (75%) of the 4 not treated died of DAD. DAD was caused by particular serotypes (3, 5, and 7) and occurred at a younger age in immunocompetent children. Viremia and prolonged viral excretion were more common in the immunocompromised. Clinical features and outcome were similar in both groups. Prospective studies addressing the use of new antiviral agents, combination antiviral therapy, and preventive strategies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for patients with DAD.Clinical Infectious Diseases 12/1998; 27(5):1194-200. DOI:10.1086/514978 · 9.42 Impact Factor