Article

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support Among Children with Adenovirus Infection: A Review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry

and ¶Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) (Impact Factor: 1.39). 11/2013; 60(1). DOI: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Overwhelming adenovirus infection requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support carries a high mortality in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to retrospectively review data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry for pediatric patients with adenovirus infection and define for this patient cohort: 1) clinical characteristics, 2) survival to hospital discharge, and 3) factors associated with mortality before hospital discharge. In this retrospective registry study, pediatric patients with adenovirus infection requiring ECMO support identified in an international ECMO registry from 1998 to 2009 were compared for clinical characteristics (demographics, pre-ECMO variables, and complications on ECMO) between survivors and nonsurvivors to hospital discharge. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to compare clinical characteristics among survivors and nonsurvivors. For children requiring ECMO support for adenovirus, the survival at hospital discharge is 38% (62/163). Among neonates (<31 days of age), the survival at hospital discharge was only 11% (6/54). Among patient factors, neonatal age (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-10.87), a decrease of 0.1 unit in pre-ECMO pH (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.3-2.42), the presence of sepsis (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 1.47-14.15), and increased peak inspiratory pressures (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08) were all independently associated with in-hospital mortality. ECMO complications independently associated with in-hospital mortality were presence of pneumothorax (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.19-10.7), pH less than 7.2 (OR, 5.94; 95% CI, 1.04-34.1), and central nervous system hemorrhage (OR, 25.36; 95% CI, 1.47-436.7). In this retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with adenovirus infection supported on ECMO, survival to hospital discharge was 38% but was much lower in neonates. Neonatal presentation, degree of acidosis, sepsis, and increased PIP are factors present before decisions are made regarding a trial of ECMO, whereas pneumothorax and brain hemorrhage were ECMO-related complications independently associated with mortality.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
74 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 2-year-old child with severe adenovirus type 7 pneumonia and myocarditis who survived after seven days of ECMO. Our patient demonstrates the possible applications of ECMO to pediatric lung diseases and reemphasizes the importance of lung biopsy in screening possible candidates.
    Southern Medical Journal 10/1983; 76(9):1171-3. · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two infants with fulminant early-onset sepsis syndrome and respiratory failure are described. Adenovirus was isolated from cultures from both patients. Complications during pregnancy and respiratory failure that required tracheal intubation at birth suggested congenital infection. Both infants were successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/1994; 125(1):110-2. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(94)70135-0 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this report was to examine the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database for predictors of outcome for severe pediatric respiratory failure managed with extracorporeal life support. Retrospective cohort study. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization data registry. All nonneonatal pediatric patients who were treated in the United States with extracorporeal life support for severe pediatric respiratory failure reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry as of August 1991. Patients with congenital heart disease and congenital gastrointestinal malformations were excluded from study. Venoarterial or venovenous extracorporeal life support for severe life-threatening pulmonary failures. As of August 1991, 220 pediatric patients meeting study entry criteria were reported to the Registry having received extracorporeal life support for severe pulmonary failure, since 1982. Forty-six percent (102 of 220 patients) were successfully managed with this technology and survived to hospital discharge. The mean patient age was 36.8 +/- 51.6 months. Fifty-one percent of the patients were male. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation before extracorporeal life support was 6.3 +/- 5.9 days. Mean blood gas and ventilatory measurements obtained before extracorporeal life support were as follows: PaCO2 52 +/- 23 torr (6.9 +/- 3.0 kPa); PaO2 59 +/- 32 torr (7.8 +/- 4.3 kPa); estimated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient 561 +/- 63.4 torr (74.8 +/- 8.5 kPa); peak airway pressure 49.5 +/- 13.1 cm H2O; mean airway pressure 24.3 +/- 8.2 cm H2O; positive end-expiratory pressure 11.8 +/- 6.3 cm H2O; ventilator rate 58 +/- 64.4 breaths/min; and FIO2 0.98 +/- 0.07. The mean duration of extracorporeal life support for all patients was 247 +/- 164 hrs. For the 102 survivors, the mean time for decannulation from extracorporeal life support to extubation from mechanical ventilation was 6.5 +/- 7.6 days. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling found the following variables to be associated with patient survival: a) patient age, b) days of mechanical ventilation before extracorporeal life support, c) peak inspiratory pressure, d) alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, and e) extracorporeal life support administered since December 31, 1988 (all p < .05). Extracorporeal life support may represent an effective rescue therapy for some selected pediatric patients with severe respiratory failure for whom conventional mechanical ventilation support has failed to improve. Predictors of survival for this life-support therapy exist that may be helpful for individual patient prognostication and future prospective study.
    Critical Care Medicine 10/1993; 21(10):1604-11. DOI:10.1097/00003246-199310000-00033 · 6.15 Impact Factor