Recurrent implantation failure: definition and management
ABSTRACT Recurrent implantation failure refers to failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after transfer of at least four good-quality embryos in a minimum of three fresh or frozen cycles in a woman under the age of 40years. The failure to implant may be a consequence of embryo or uterine factors. Thorough investigations should be carried out to ascertain whether there is any underlying cause of the condition. Ovarian function should be assessed by measurement of antral follicle count, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Increased sperm DNA fragmentation may be a contributory cause. Various uterine pathology including fibroids, endometrial polyps, congenital anomalies and intrauterine adhesions should be excluded by ultrasonography and hysteroscopy. Hydrosalpinges are a recognized cause of implantation failure and should be excluded by hysterosalpingogram; if necessary, laparoscopy should be performed to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Treatment offered should be evidence based, aimed at improving embryo quality or endometrial receptivity. Gamete donation or surrogacy may be necessary if there is no realistic chance of success with further IVF attempts. Recurrent implantation failure is an important cause of repeated IVF failure. It is estimated that approximately 10% of women seeking IVF treatment will experience this particular problem. It is a distressing condition for patients and frustrating for clinicians and scientists. In this review, we have discussed the definition and management of the possible underlying causes of recurrent implantation failure.
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ABSTRACT: Summary Implantation failure is a major limiting factor in assisted reproduction improvement. Dysfunction of embryo-maternal immuno-tolerance pathways may be responsible for repeated implantation failures. This fact is supported by immunotropic theory stipulating that maternal immune cells, essentially uterine CD56+ natural killer cells, are determinants of implantation success. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied endometrium immuno-modulation prior to fresh embryo transfer for patients with repeated implantation failures. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from repeated implantation failure patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles. On the day of ovulation induction, cells were isolated and then cultured for 3 days and transferred into the endometrium cavity prior to fresh embryo transfer. This immunotherapy was performed on 27 patients with repeated implantation failures and compared with another 27 patients who served as controls. Implantation and clinical pregnancy were increased significantly in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell test versus control (21.54, 44.44 vs. 8.62, 14.81%). This finding suggests a clear role for endometrium immuno-modulation and the inflammation process in implantation success. Our study showed the feasibility of intrauterine administration of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an effective therapy to improve clinical outcomes for patients with repeated implantation failures and who are undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles.Zygote 01/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0967199414000719 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Successful implantation requires the synchronization of viable embryonic development with endometrial receptivity. The mechanisms allowing for the initiation of crosstalk between the embryo and the endometrium remain elusive, however recent studies have revealed alterations in endometrial microRNAs (miRs) in women suffering repeated implantation failure; one of the altered miRs is miR-145. We assessed the role of miR-145 and its target, IGF1R, in early implantation. miR-145 overexpression and IGF1R knockdown were achieved in Ishikawa endometrial cells. QPCR, western blotting and 3'UTR luciferase reporter assays confirmed that IGF1R is a direct target of miR-145 in the endometrium. Attachment of mouse embryos or IGF-I-coated beads to endometrial epithelial cells was used to study the effects of altered miR-145 and/or IGF1R expression on early implantation events. miR-145 overexpression or specific reduction of IGF1R impaired attachment in both cases. miR-145/IGF1R target protectors prevented miR-145-mediated reduction in IGF1R and reversed the effect of miR-145 overexpression on attachment. The data demonstrate that miR-145 influences embryo attachment by reducing the level of IGF1R in endometrium.
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ABSTRACT: The success rate of reproductive treatment methods depends on many different factors. The most important and discussed ones in the literature are maternal age, the causes of infertility, the ovarian response to stimulation, the influence of the male factor and sperm quality, embryo quality and the various uterine pathologies. Some couples fail repeatedly after transferring good quality embryos without any obvious reason and this becomes a major continuing problem after IVF/ICSI procedures. It can be speculated that in these couples, insufficiency of the endometrium might be a possible reason for implantation failure. This review article summarized current literature describing the consecutive endomertial procedures involved in successful embryo implantation. It is believed that efforts to align criteria for definition of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and attempts to classify different RIF types would develop guidelines for treatment procedures which would result in an increase in patients' opportunities to conceive.