Recurrent implantation failure refers to failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after transfer of at least four good-quality embryos in a minimum of three fresh or frozen cycles in a woman under the age of 40years. The failure to implant may be a consequence of embryo or uterine factors. Thorough investigations should be carried out to ascertain whether there is any underlying cause of the condition. Ovarian function should be assessed by measurement of antral follicle count, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Increased sperm DNA fragmentation may be a contributory cause. Various uterine pathology including fibroids, endometrial polyps, congenital anomalies and intrauterine adhesions should be excluded by ultrasonography and hysteroscopy. Hydrosalpinges are a recognized cause of implantation failure and should be excluded by hysterosalpingogram; if necessary, laparoscopy should be performed to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Treatment offered should be evidence based, aimed at improving embryo quality or endometrial receptivity. Gamete donation or surrogacy may be necessary if there is no realistic chance of success with further IVF attempts. Recurrent implantation failure is an important cause of repeated IVF failure. It is estimated that approximately 10% of women seeking IVF treatment will experience this particular problem. It is a distressing condition for patients and frustrating for clinicians and scientists. In this review, we have discussed the definition and management of the possible underlying causes of recurrent implantation failure.
"Increasing evidence shows that recurrent spontaneous abortion is a result of a selection failure in preventing 'poor quality' embryos from implanting, and being subsequently rejected as their development fails, leading to a later recurrent pregnancy loss (Quenby et al., 2002; Salker et al., 2010; Teklenburg et al., 2010b; Weimar et al., 2012). Furthermore , some endometrial factors can negatively affect the implantation process in women who have experienced recurrent spontaneous abortion (Coughlan et al., 2014; Maybin et al., 2011), causing alterations in factors essential for implantation and maintenance of full-term pregnancy (Lee et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) gene is an inflammatory mediator expressed in human endometrium during the window of implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible genetic association of TFF3 variants in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (n = 164) and healthy pregnant women (n = 143) were genotyped for five TFF3 polymorphisms (rs225439 G/A, rs533093 C/T, rs225361 A/G, rs11701143 T/C and rs77436142 G/C). In addition, haplotypes formed within the gene were analysed. Within the recurrent spontaneous abortion group, women who at some point had given birth and childless women had 4.19 ± 1.75 and 5.34 ± 3.42 consecutive spontaneous abortions, respectively. Women who had experience recurrent spontaneous abortions had a lower allele frequency of the rs11701143 promoter region minor C allele compared with fertile women (0.02 versus 0.05, P = 0.015). Patients with rs225361 AG genotype had significantly more successful pregnancies before spontaneous abortion than those with homozygous AA and GG genotypes (P = 0.014). No significant differences in haplotype frequencies between patients and controls were detected. Possible genetic risk factors identified that might contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion were TFF3 gene variants.
"According to ESHRE PGD consortium, repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as the absence of a gestational sac on ultrasound at 5 or more weeks after embryo transfer (ET) after 3 embryo transfers with high quality embryos or after the transfer of ≥10 embryos in multiple transfers . Repeated implantation failure can be caused by both maternal and embryonic factors . Intrauterine pathologic conditions, such as polyps, intrauterine adhesions, submucous myomas, and a septated or subseptated uterus, have been demonstrated to disturb embryo implantation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success rate of reproductive treatment methods depends on many different factors. The most important and discussed ones in the literature are maternal age, the causes of infertility, the ovarian response to stimulation, the influence of the male factor and sperm quality, embryo quality and the various uterine pathologies. Some couples fail repeatedly after transferring good quality embryos without any obvious reason and this becomes a major continuing problem after IVF/ICSI procedures. It can be speculated that in these couples, insufficiency of the endometrium might be a possible reason for implantation failure. This review article summarized current literature describing the consecutive endomertial procedures involved in successful embryo implantation. It is believed that efforts to align criteria for definition of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and attempts to classify different RIF types would develop guidelines for treatment procedures which would result in an increase in patients' opportunities to conceive.
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility 07/2014; 15(4):173-183.
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