Outcomes of Greater Occipital Nerve Injections in Pediatric Patients With Chronic Primary Headache Disorders.
ABSTRACT Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short- to medium-term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders.
Retrospective chart review of patients <18 years with a chronic primary headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%.
Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, 9 (20%) new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and 2 (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 7 to 17 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, and 52% (11/21) benefitted significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 0 to 14 days, mean 4.7 (SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4 (SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, and 56% (10/18) significantly benefitted. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n = 1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects.
Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared greater in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration seems appropriate before more aggressive approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Data from the 1989 National Health Interview Survey concerning migraine occurrence and impairment were analyzed to assess the impact of migraine on the US population. About four of every one hundred persons in the United States were found to have migraine, accounting for nearly 10 million individuals. Migraine was most prevalent in those aged 25 to 44 years and was about 2.5 times more frequent in females than males. Migraine was most common in whites (85%) and those with low household income. In women, migraine prevalence increased with the level of education. About 10% of migrainous children missed at least one day of school over a two-week period due to migraine; nearly 1% missed four days. Migraineurs were bedridden for about three million days per month and had an estimated 74.2 million days per year of restricted activity due to migraine. The potential cost of lost productivity was estimated at $1.4 billion per year for the estimated 6,196,378 migraineurs who worked outside the home. It is difficult to derive similar estimates for costs of lost productivity in housewives; however, housewives experienced an estimated 38 million days per year of restricted activity. Eighty-five percent of females and 77% of males reported a physician visit at some point for their migraine. Migraine is a relatively common disease whose social and financial impact has been poorly understood.Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 02/1993; 33(1):29-35. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) and the Silberstein-Lipton (S-L) criteria in the classification of adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH). We reviewed the clinical records and the headache diaries of 170 adolescents (13 to 17 years) seen between 1998 and 2003 at a headache center. Relevant information was transferred to a standardized form that included operational criteria for the ICHD-2. CDH subtypes were classified according the criteria proposed by S-L into transformed migraine (TM) with (TM+) and without medication overuse (TM-), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and hemicrania continua (HC). From the 69 patients with TM- according the S-L criteria, most (71%) could be classified as chronic migraine (CM), while a minority of patients required a combination of diagnosis, mainly migraine and CTTH (14.4%). Of the patients with TM+, just 39.6% met the criteria for probable CM (PCM) with probable medication overuse (PMO). If instead of 15 migraine days per month, we considered 15 or more days of migraine or probable migraine, 84% of the subjects with TM- and 68.7% of those with TM+ could be classified. Of the 27 subjects classified as NDPH without medication overuse according to the S-L system, the majority (51.2%) were also classified as NDPH according the ICHD-2. Interestingly, three (11.1% of the subjects with NDPH without medication overuse) were classified as CM in the ICHD-2 because these patients had an abrupt onset of 15 or more days of migraine per month. All patients with NDPH with medication overuse according to the S-L criteria required a combination of diagnoses in the ICHD-2. All subjects with CTTH received a single diagnosis in both classification systems. (i) Among adolescents with TM, the majority (58.1%) could be classified as CM, according to the ICHD-2. These results were driven by TM without medication overuse. (ii) If the ICHD-2 criteria for CM are revised to require 15 days of migraine or probable migraine, the proportion of patients with TM- who meet the criteria for CM increases from 71% to 84%; for TM+, the proportion with probable chronic migraine and PMO increases from 30% to 68%. (iii) About half of the patients with NDPH according to the S-L criteria have too many migraine features to meet ICHD-2 criteria for NDPH.Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 06/2005; 45(5):582-9. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most patients with primary headache syndromes who have frequent attacks of pain have tenderness in the sub-occipital region. Injection of the greater occipital nerve (GON) with local anesthetic and corticosteroids has been widely used in clinical practice for many years, yet there is no clear understanding of its mechanisms of action. Moreover, there is no current gold-standard of practice regarding GON injections in the management of headache. We audited of our practice to generate hypotheses about the range of primary headaches that might benefit, to determine response rates to power future studies, and to assess whether we should continue to do this procedure. Twenty-six of fifty-seven injections in 54 migraineurs yielded a complete or partial response that lasted for the partial response a median of 30 days. For cluster headache 13 of 22 injections yielded a complete or partial response lasting for a median of 21 days for the partial response. Tenderness over the GON was strongly predictive of outcome, although local anesthesia after the injection was not. The presence or absence of medication overuse did not predict outcome. Apart from two patients with a small patch of alopecia the injection was well tolerated. GON injection is a useful tool in some patients that provides interim relief while other approaches are explored. It is remarkable that in all conditions in which an effect is observed the response time so much exceeds the local anesthetic effect that the mechanism of action may well be through changes in brain nociceptive pathways.Pain 06/2006; 122(1-2):126-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor