Rationale, design, and organization of a randomized, controlled Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT Sitagliptin, an oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, lowers blood glucose when administered as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. TECOS will evaluate the effects of adding sitagliptin to usual diabetes care on cardiovascular outcomes and clinical safety. TECOS is a pragmatic, academically run, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial recruiting approximately 14,000 patients in 38 countries who have type 2 diabetes (T2DM), are at least 50 years old, have cardiovascular disease, and have an hemoglobin A1c value between 6.5% and 8.0%. Eligible participants will be receiving stable mono- or dual therapy with metformin, sulfonylurea, or pioglitazone, or insulin alone or in combination with metformin. Randomization is 1:1 to double-blind sitagliptin or matching placebo, in addition to existing therapy in a usual care setting. Follow-up occurs at 4-month intervals in year 1 and then twice yearly until 1300 confirmed primary end points have occurred. Glycemic equipoise between randomized groups is a desired aim. The primary composite cardiovascular endpoint is time to the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, with cardiovascular events adjudicated by an independent committee blinded to study therapy. TECOS is a pragmatic-design cardiovascular outcome trial assessing the cardiovascular effects of sitagliptin when added to usual T2DM management.
- SourceAvailable from: Tien-Hsing Chen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unclear. We analyzed data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between March 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011. A total of 1025 AMI patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease were selected as the study cohort. The study evaluated the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of sitagliptin by comparing 205 subjects (20%) who use sitagliptin to 820 matched subjects (80%) who do not. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or cardiovascular death. Primary composite outcomes occurred in 54 patients in the sitagliptin group (26.3%) and in 164 patients in the comparison group (20.0%) (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.97-1.79; P=0.079) during the mean follow-up of 1.02years (SD=0.71years). The sitagliptin group had similar risks of ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) compared to the non-sitagliptin group (P=0.938, 0.523 and 0.795 respectively). However, sitagliptin use was associated with increased risks of recurrent myocardial infarction (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.15-2.58; P=0.008) and percutaneous coronary revascularization (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.95; P=0.026). Among type 2 diabetic patients with CKD after AMI, the use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke or hospitalization for HF but was associated with increased risks of recurrent MI and percutaneous coronary revascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.International Journal of Cardiology 12/2014; 181C:200-206. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Saxagliptin was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk. This study assessed the risk of HHF during an exposure to sitagliptin in general diabetic patients. Methods In Taiwan National Health Insurance research database, a study of the beneficiaries aged ≥ 45 years with diabetes treated with or without sitagliptin between March 2009 and July 2011 was conducted. Patients treated with sitagliptin were matched to patients never exposed to a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor by the propensity score methodology. The outcome measures were the first and the total number of HHF, and mortality for heart failure or all causes. Results A total of 8288 matched pairs of patients were analyzed. During a median of 1.5 years, the first event of HHF occurred in 339 patients with sitagliptin and 275 patients never exposed to a DPP-4 inhibitor (hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.42, P = 0.017); all-cause mortality was similar (hazard ratio: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.74–1.03, P = 0.109). The risk for HHF was proportional to exposure (hazard ratio: 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.11, P < 0.001 for every 10% increase in adherence to sitagliptin). Overall, there were 935 events of HHF, in which the association between the number of HHF and the adherence to sitagliptin was linear. The greatest total number of HHF occurred in the patients with the highest adherence. Conclusions The use of sitagliptin was associated with a higher risk of HHF but no excessive risk for mortality was observed.International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; 177(1):86–90. · 6.18 Impact Factor