Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in U.S. children, 6-15 years.
ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between urinary phthalate metabolite levels and attention deficit disorder (ADD), learning disability (LD), and co-occurrence of ADD and LD in 6-15-year-old children.
We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2001-2004). Phthalate metabolites with ≥75% detection in urine samples were examined. The study population comprised 1493 children with parent-reported information on ADD or LD diagnosis and phthalate concentrations in urine. Phthalate concentrations were creatinine-adjusted and log10-transformed for analysis. All models controlled for child sex, age, race, household income, blood lead, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.
There were 112 ADD cases, 173 LD cases, and 56 ADD and LD cases in the sample. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found increased odds of ADD with increasing urinary concentration of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) and high molecular weight phthalates (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 6.1). In addition, dibutyl phthalates (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 0.9, 12.7) and high molecular weight phthalates (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 14.8) were marginally associated with increased odds of co-occurring ADD and LD. We did not find associations for any phthalate and LD alone. We observed stronger associations between phthalates and ADD and both ADD and LD in girls than boys in some models.
We found cross-sectional evidence that certain phthalates are associated with increased odds of ADD and both ADD and LD. Further investigations with longitudinal data are needed to confirm these results.
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ABSTRACT: Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child's urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 07/2014; 11(7):6743-6756. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110706743 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental endocrine disrupter. The present study investigated the effect of DEHP on emotional behavior of mice following perinatal exposure (10, 50, and 200mgkg(-1)d(-1)) from gestation day 7 through postnatal day 21. The results showed that, in pubertal males (6-w-old), DEHP decreased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into them in elevated plus maze and decreased the time in the mirrored chamber and in the light-box; in pubertal females, DEHP decreased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into them, suggesting that DEHP exposure made a anxiogenic effect in pubertal offspring regardless of sex. While DEHP effect on anxiety of adult (12-w-old) displayed sex differences, with decreased time spent in the open arms in the adult females. Perinatal exposure to DEPH significantly extended the time of immobility in forced swim task of pubertal offspring and adulthood regardless of sex. Furthermore, DEHP down-regulated the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) in pubertal male hippocampus and of estrogen receptor (ER) β in pubertal female and adult hippocampus of both sexes and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 of hippocampus in pubertal mice and adult males. These results suggest that exposure to DEHP early in life affected the anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of pubertal offspring and even adult. The disruption of gonadal hormones' modulation of behaviors due to down-regulation of AR or ERβ in the hippocampus may be associated with the aggravated anxiety- and depression-like status induced by DEHP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Chemosphere 11/2014; 124. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.056 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 27 phthalates in milk and milk products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 2007/19/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 90.7% to 104.6%, with coefficient of variation <5.6%. The 27 compounds behave dynamic range in the 0.1–1000 μg kg−1 concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.32–2.6 μg kg−1. This method has been successfully applied on screening of phthalates in 96 commercial milk and milk product samples.Journal of Chromatography A 10/2014; 1362:110–118. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.08.030 · 4.26 Impact Factor