Isopropylphenidate: An Ester Homolog of Methylphenidate with Sustained and Selective Dopaminergic Activity and Reduced Drug Interaction Liability.
ABSTRACT Abstract Objective: The most widely utilized pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH). Most MPH formulations consist of the racemic mixture of d-threo-(R, R)-MPH and l-threo-(S, S)-MPH isomers. MPH is characterized by its low bioavailability and short half-life (2-3 hours). Additionally, significant inter-individual variability in MPH pharmacokinetics has been consistently documented. Accordingly, efforts have been directed at developing alternatives to MPH as therapeutic agents. A wide range of MPH analogues (dl-α-[2-piperidyl]-phenylacetic acid esters) have been synthesized with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) as principle neuropharmacological targets. The present study investigated the metabolic profiles and pharmacological activity of the isopropyl ester derivative of MPH, dl-isopropylphenidate (IPH), both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The synthesis, monoaminergic transporter binding, cellular uptake profiles, and assessment of metabolic hydrolysis and transesterification in the presence of ethanol are described using MPH as a comparator. Additionally, an in vivo assessment of IPH stimulant effects (vs. saline) in rats was performed with locomotor activity as a pharmacodynamic outcome. Results: IPH displayed unique pharmacological characteristics including greater DAT than NET binding and cellular uptake activity, and greater resistance to hydrolysis and transesterification via carboxylesterase 1 relative to MPH. Further, sustained psychostimulant properties offer the prospect of an enhanced duration of action. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with IPH exhibiting attributes distinguishing it from MPH and warranting further study and development of IPH as a novel psychotherapeutic agent.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We review the pharmaceutical science of ethylphenidate (EPH) in the contexts of drug discovery, drug interactions, biomarker for dl-methylphenidate (MPH)–ethanol exposure, potentiation of dl-MPH abuse liability, contemporary “designer drug,” pertinence to the newer transdermal and chiral switch MPH formulations, as well as problematic internal standard. d-EPH selectively targets the dopamine transporter, whereas d-MPH exhibits equipotent actions at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. This selectivity carries implications for the advancement of tailored attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in the era of genome-based diagnostics. Abuse of dl-MPH often involves ethanol coabuse. Carboxylesterase 1 enantioselectively transesterifies l-MPH with ethanol to yield l-EPH accompanied by significantly increased early exposure to d-MPH and rapid potentiation of euphoria. The pharmacokinetic component of this drug interaction can largely be avoided using dexmethylphenidate (dexMPH). This notwithstanding, maximal potentiated euphoria occurs following dexMPH–ethanol. C57BL/6 mice model dl-MPH–ethanol interactions: an otherwise depressive dose of ethanol synergistically increases dl-MPH stimulation; a substimulatory dose of dl-MPH potentiates a low, stimulatory dose of ethanol; ethanol elevates blood, brain, and urinary d-MPH concentrations while forming l-EPH. Integration of EPH preclinical neuropharmacology with clinical studies of MPH–ethanol interactions provides a translational approach toward advancement of ADHD personalized medicine and management of comorbid alcohol use disorder. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm SciJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2014; 103(12). DOI:10.1002/jps.24202 · 3.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review examines molecular genetic studies shown to be of importance in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and contrasts prefrontal versus sub-cortical mechanisms. Although these mechanisms are not completely dissociated, an understanding of prefrontal dopaminergic/noradrenergic versus subcortical D1/D2 receptor mechanisms is useful for studies of diagnosis versus potential adverse effects. Dopamine physiology, dopamine receptor studies, alpha-2 agonist studies, and dopamine transporter and potential new therapies are reviewed. Further understandings of molecular mechanisms involved in etiology versus treatment and adverse effects should help personalize the treatment of ADHD.Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 01/2014; 7:349-56. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S52844