To Sleep or Not To Sleep: A Systematic Review of the Literature of Pharmacological Treatments of Insomnia in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
ABSTRACT Abstract Objective: This systematic review assessed current evidence on sleep medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, to establish appropriate guidance for clinicians faced with prescribing such medications. Methods: Five articles (based on four pharmacological compounds) out of a total 337 were identified as evidence to guide pharmacological treatment of ADHD-related sleep disorders. Data regarding participant characteristics, measures of ADHD diagnosis, measures of sleep, and outcome data were extracted. Results: Zolpidem and L-theanine both displayed a poor response in reducing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, however L-theanine did produce an increase in sleep efficiency. Zolpidem produced high levels of side effects, leading to the largest dropout rate of all five studies. Clonidine reduced insomnia; and melatonin also exhibited a positive response, with reduced sleep latency, higher total sleep time, and higher sleep efficiency. Conclusions: There is a relative paucity of evidence for the pharmacological treatment of ADHD-related sleep disorders; therefore, further research should be conducted to replicate these findings and obtain reliable results.
- Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 01/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep problems are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to the extent that they mimic or exacerbate daytime symptoms expression. In this review, we advocate the need for a better understanding of sleep alterations in youths with ADHD and their impact on neurobehavioral functions including learning, memory and emotional regulation. An in-depth exploration of existing data showed that although extensively studied, the actual nature of sleep problems in ADHD and their effects on daytime behavior are still less well understood. Important issues, among which developmental changes in sleep architecture and role of subtle sleep electroencephalogram signatures, are generally neglected. Future research of sleep effects on behavior in ADHD would benefit from considering developmental aspects and links between brain activation patterns during sleep and wake.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 02/2014; DOI:10.1586/14737175.2014.885382 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in understanding the neurochemistry of sleep and waking have stimulated new pharmacological directions in the treatment of insomnia. While the sedation of historic insomnia medications was discovered serendipitously, now compounds can be developed for specific molecular targets with known sleep-related actions. Numerous investigational compounds, including some entirely novel approaches, are being evaluated currently as possible insomnia treatments. In recent years the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved medications with new pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties thereby extending the options for personalized pharmacotherapy. The FDA is reviewing new applications for innovative sleep-promoting medications currently, including suvorexant and tasimelteon. Presently the FDA-approved insomnia treatment medications include benzodiazepine receptor agonists available in immediate-release, extended-release, and alternative delivery oral absorption formulations; a melatonin receptor agonist; and a histamine receptor antagonist. Clinical indications include insomnia associated with difficulty with sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and middle-of-the-night awakenings. Alternative approaches to treating insomnia have included prescription medications employed on an off-label basis for insomnia, over-the-counter sleep aids, and assorted unregulated substances marketed to enhance sleep.International Review of Psychiatry 06/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.3109/09540261.2014.888990 · 1.80 Impact Factor