Neurologic Complications of Metronidazole.
ABSTRACT Metronidazole (Flagyl®) is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in clinical practice. Although it is generally well tolerated with minimal side effects, there are a host of still under-recognized neurologic complications of metronidazole treatment. The following review is aimed at summarizing current literature pertaining to metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity including clinical syndromes, neuroradiological findings, prognosis and proposed pathophysiology. Recognition of the neurotoxic effects of metronidazole is critical as prompt discontinuation is generally associated with full clinical recovery and radiological resolution.
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ABSTRACT: Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.Internal and Emergency Medicine 08/2014; 9(8). DOI:10.1007/s11739-014-1120-5 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Cerebellar ataxia can be induced by a large number of drugs. We here conducted a systemic review of the drugs that can lead to cerebellar ataxia as an adverse drug reaction (ADR). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed (1966 to January 2014) and EMBASE (1988 to January 2014) to identify all of the drugs that can have ataxia as an ADR and to assess the frequency of drug-induced ataxia for individual drugs. Furthermore, we collected reports of drug-induced ataxia over the past 20 years in the Netherlands by querying a national register of ADRs. Results Drug-induced ataxia was reported in association with 93 individual drugs (57 from the literature, 36 from the Dutch registry). The most common groups were antiepileptic drugs, benzodiazepines, and antineoplastics. For some, the number needed to harm was below 10. Ataxia was commonly reversible, but persistent symptoms were described with lithium and certain antineoplastics. Conclusions It is important to be aware of the possibility that ataxia might be drug-induced, and for some drugs the relative frequency of this particular ADR is high. In most patients, symptoms occur within days or weeks after the introduction of a new drug or an increase in dose. In general, ataxia tends to disappear after discontinuation of the drug, but chronic ataxia has been described for some drugs.CNS Drugs 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0200-4 · 4.38 Impact Factor