Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Treatment and outcomes
ABSTRACT Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome.
SourceAvailable from: Benyagoub Mohamed[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Treatment for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may affect the final height of these patients. Our objective was to determine the distribution of achieved height in patients with classic CAH diagnosed at infancy or early childhood and treated with glucocorticoids. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus through September 2008; the reference sections of included studies; and expert files. Eligible studies included patients diagnosed with CAH before age 5 and followed to final height. Reviewers working in duplicate independently extracted data on study characteristics and outcomes and determined each study's risk of bias. The sd score (SDS) for final height and corrected height (defined as final height SDS - midparental height SDS) were estimated from each study and pooled using random-effects metaanalysis. The I(2) statistic was used to assess inconsistency in results across studies. We found 35 eligible studies, most of which were retrospective single-cohort studies. The final height SDS achieved by CAH patients was -1.38 (-1.56 to -1.20; I(2) = 90.2%), and the corrected height SDS was -1.03 (-1.20 to -0.86; I(2) = 63.1%). This was not significantly associated with age at diagnosis, gender, type and dose of steroid, and age of onset of puberty. Mineralocorticoid users had a better height outcome in comparison with the nonusers (P = 0.02). Evidence derived from observational studies suggests that the final height of CAH patients treated with glucocorticoids is lower than the population norm and is lower than expected given parental height.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2010; 95(9):4161-72. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-2616 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a result of the introduction of treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, now 60 years ago, congenital adrenal hyperplasia has become a lifelong chronic disease. Whether long-term treatment of the disease leads to long-term side effects remains unknown. In this respect, especially cardiovascular risk seems to be important. We reviewed the reported prevalence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure and dyslipidaemia in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Overall, the studies suggest a tendency towards an increased body mass index and fat mass, the presence of insulin resistance and hypertension, although data are relatively scarce and obtained in heterogeneous populations. Our findings suggest that adult CAH patients tend to have a cluster of metabolic risk factors, which are consistent with the metabolic syndrome. This notion may have consequences for the care for this group of patients.Clinical Endocrinology 09/2009; 73(2):137-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03690.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD), markers of bone metabolism, fractures, and steroids reflecting hormonal control in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). SUBJECTS, METHODS AND DESIGN: We compared CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n=30), 19-67 years old, with age- and sex-matched controls (n=32). Subgroups of CYP21A2 genotypes, age, glucocorticoid preparation, poor control versus overtreatment, and early versus late (>36 months) diagnosis were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and markers of bone metabolism and androgens/17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were investigated. RESULTS: All, including older (>30 yrs), CAH patients had lower BMD in all measured sites compared to control subjects. The null group demonstrated lower BMD in more locations than the other groups. Osteoporosis/osteopenia was present in 81% of CAH patients compared to 32% in controls (≥30 yrs). Fracture frequency was similar, osteocalcin lower, and fewer patients than controls had vitamin D insufficiency. IGF-I was elevated in the milder genotypes. In patients, total body BMD was positively correlated to weight, BMI, total lean body mass, triglycerides, and negatively to prolactin. Patients on prednisolone had lower BMD and osteocalcin levels than those on hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate. Patients with poor control had higher femoral neck BMD. There were no differences in BMD between patients with an early versus late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: CAH males have low BMD and bone formation markers. BMD should be monitored, adequate prophylaxis and treatment established, and glucocorticoid doses optimized to minimize the risk of future fractures.European Journal of Endocrinology 12/2012; DOI:10.1530/EJE-12-0865 · 3.69 Impact Factor