In recent years several neuromodulation techniques have been introduced as interventions for addiction.
To review and discuss studies that have investigated the effects of treating addiction by means of electroencephalography ( eeg ) neurofeedback, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-f mri ) neurofeedback, transcranial magnetic stimulation/transcranial direct current stimulation ( tms /t dcs ) and deep brain stimulation ( dbs ).
We reviewed the literature, focusing on Dutch studies in particular.
Studies using eeg neurofeedback were shown to have positive effects on drug use, treatment compliance, and cue reactivity in patients with cocaine and alcohol dependence. A pilot study investigating the effects of rt-f mri neurofeedback on nicotine dependent patients showed that modulation of the anterior cingulate cortex can decrease smokers’ craving for nicotine. In several studies decreased craving was found in alcohol dependent patients after tms or t dcs stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex or the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The first dbs pilot studies suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target region for the treatment of alcohol and heroin dependence.
Neuromodulation provides us with a unique opportunity to directly apply neuroscienctific knowledge to the treatment of addiction. However, more research is needed to ensure the efficacy, safety and feasibility of the various neuromodulation techniques that are now available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are a number of repetitive behaviors which have in common what appears to be a decrease in an individual's capacity to choose to discontinue them. The taxonomy we select to categorize these behaviors depends on our objectives. Broad definition which label as 'addictions' both repetitive use of drugs and repetitive behaviors not related to drug use call attention to the loss of flexibility that the behaviors have in common. However, such broad definitions may overemphasize the value of general behavioral approaches to change and obscure the fact that seemingly similar behaviors can be dramatically changed by very different specific interventions; (for example, nicotine gum for cigarette smoking, clomipramine for obsessive compulsive disorder.) It is also possible that calling both compulsive hair-pulling and daily heroin use 'addictive disorders' may trivialize the concept of addiction and lead to an erosion of public support for research and intervention in the chemical addictions.
British journal of addiction 12/1990; 85(11):1425-7; discussion 1429-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1990.tb01624.x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzodiazepines are medications that are addicting--both in combination with other drugs and alone. The scope of the problem is thought to be wide, but it has not been well documented for unclear reasons. Pharmacologic dependence has been documented in virtually all long-term users. Adverse effects occur secondary to their use and these effects are often subtle, but significant. Various benzodiazepines present differences in reinforcement, withdrawal, and adverse effects. Diagnostic issues, withdrawal, and treatment issues are discussed.
Psychiatric Clinics of North America 04/1993; 16(1):75-86. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is argued that there are two kinds of benzodiazepine dependence: a therapeutic and a morbid kind. The therapeutic dependence is acceptable in that it mitigates the clinical manifestations in patients with long-standing and fluctuating anxious-depressive symptoms. The morbid dependence is an unfortunate complication which can arouse therapeutic concern because it ties patients to an excessive dosage, unless the penalty of a sometimes grim abstinence syndrome is paid on drug reduction. The present, often strident and threatening, damnation of benzodiazepines oversteps the mark and causes avoidable misery to patients whose well-being has become largely and therapeutically dependent on the drug.
The British Journal of Psychiatry 06/1989; 154(5):697-704. DOI:10.1192/bjp.154.5.697 · 7.99 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.