Efficacy of systemically oriented psychotherapies in the treatment of perinatal depression: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of systemically oriented psychotherapy treatments for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum. Specifically, this synthesis examined standardized mean differences between pre- and posttest and treatment-control conditions in depression symptom reduction among 24 individual interpersonal psychotherapy or relational psychotherapy studies completed between 1997 and 2013. Analyses assessed heterogeneity, potential moderators, and publication bias. Random-effects analyses revealed a large, positive average effect size [Formula: see text] for psychotherapy treatments among one-group, pre-post-studies and a medium, positive average effect [Formula: see text] when treatments were compared with control groups. Mixed-effects meta-ANOVAs indicated that treatment type, participant depression severity, and method of depression assessment were significant moderators such that effect sizes were larger among individual interpersonal psychotherapy studies, clinical samples, and studies that included an independent evaluation of depression. However, relational treatments and studies with nonclinical samples were less represented in the literature, and still demonstrated small to medium positive effects. Meta-regressions revealed that effects were largest when treatments were delivered with adherence fidelity checks and over more sessions. Based on funnel plots and Egger tests, there was evidence of publication bias in this analysis; however, the effects were distributed fairly symmetrically about the mean given the relatively small number of available studies. Findings have implications for continued examination of systemically oriented psychotherapy treatments for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum.
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ABSTRACT: In pregnant women with major depression, the overarching goal of treatment is to achieve or maintain maternal euthymia, thus limiting both maternal and fetal exposure to the harmful effects of untreated or incompletely treated depression. However, the absence of uniformly effective therapies with guaranteed obstetric and fetal safety makes the treatment of major depression during pregnancy among the most formidable of clinical challenges. Clinicians and patients are still faced with conflicting data and expert opinion regarding the reproductive safety of antidepressants in pregnancy, as well as large gaps in our understanding of the effectiveness of most antidepressants and nonpharmacological alternatives for treating antenatal depression. In this paper, we provide a clinically focused review of the available information on potential maternal and fetal risks of untreated maternal depression during pregnancy, the effectiveness of interventions for maternal depression during pregnancy, and potential obstetric, fetal, and neonatal risks associated with antenatal antidepressant use.Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 09/2014; 6:109-29. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S43308
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ABSTRACT: Researchers have found linear associations among maternal and child characteristics. However, family systems theorists suggest that relationships are more complex and family members are interdependent. We used actor–partner interdependence modeling to unravel associations among maternal and child characteristics to predict outcomes in adolescence. We used data from 361 mother–child dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and found both actor and partner effects. Maternal depression and history of victimization were associated with children's later reports of lower mother–adolescent relationship quality. Children's perceptions of relationship quality were also associated with mothers' later depressive symptoms and perceptions of relationship quality. Overall, results highlighted interdependence among mothers and their children over time. We discuss implications for marriage and family therapists.Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 07/2014; DOI:10.1111/jmft.12084 · 1.01 Impact Factor