The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of systemically oriented psychotherapy treatments for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum. Specifically, this synthesis examined standardized mean differences between pre- and posttest and treatment-control conditions in depression symptom reduction among 24 individual interpersonal psychotherapy or relational psychotherapy studies completed between 1997 and 2013. Analyses assessed heterogeneity, potential moderators, and publication bias. Random-effects analyses revealed a large, positive average effect size [Formula: see text] for psychotherapy treatments among one-group, pre-post-studies and a medium, positive average effect [Formula: see text] when treatments were compared with control groups. Mixed-effects meta-ANOVAs indicated that treatment type, participant depression severity, and method of depression assessment were significant moderators such that effect sizes were larger among individual interpersonal psychotherapy studies, clinical samples, and studies that included an independent evaluation of depression. However, relational treatments and studies with nonclinical samples were less represented in the literature, and still demonstrated small to medium positive effects. Meta-regressions revealed that effects were largest when treatments were delivered with adherence fidelity checks and over more sessions. Based on funnel plots and Egger tests, there was evidence of publication bias in this analysis; however, the effects were distributed fairly symmetrically about the mean given the relatively small number of available studies. Findings have implications for continued examination of systemically oriented psychotherapy treatments for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum.
"It is therefore surprising that there has been so little investigation of the effectiveness of relational therapies (focused on marital and family problems) for treating antenatal depression. One meta-analysis reviewed earlier showed lower effect sizes with relational therapies than IPT in women with antenatal depression;53 however, it seems reasonable that cases of maternal depression in which marital and family problems contribute heavily to depressive symptom burden may also stand to benefit most from these interventions as well as IPT. The effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalytic approaches in this population is described only in case literature.61 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregnant women with major depression, the overarching goal of treatment is to achieve or maintain maternal euthymia, thus limiting both maternal and fetal exposure to the harmful effects of untreated or incompletely treated depression. However, the absence of uniformly effective therapies with guaranteed obstetric and fetal safety makes the treatment of major depression during pregnancy among the most formidable of clinical challenges. Clinicians and patients are still faced with conflicting data and expert opinion regarding the reproductive safety of antidepressants in pregnancy, as well as large gaps in our understanding of the effectiveness of most antidepressants and nonpharmacological alternatives for treating antenatal depression. In this paper, we provide a clinically focused review of the available information on potential maternal and fetal risks of untreated maternal depression during pregnancy, the effectiveness of interventions for maternal depression during pregnancy, and potential obstetric, fetal, and neonatal risks associated with antenatal antidepressant use.
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 09/2014; 6:109-29. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S43308
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Researchers have found linear associations among maternal and child characteristics. However, family systems theorists suggest that relationships are more complex and family members are interdependent. We used actor–partner interdependence modeling to unravel associations among maternal and child characteristics to predict outcomes in adolescence. We used data from 361 mother–child dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and found both actor and partner effects. Maternal depression and history of victimization were associated with children's later reports of lower mother–adolescent relationship quality. Children's perceptions of relationship quality were also associated with mothers' later depressive symptoms and perceptions of relationship quality. Overall, results highlighted interdependence among mothers and their children over time. We discuss implications for marriage and family therapists.
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 07/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.1111/jmft.12084 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An integrated approach addressing maternal depression and associated mother-infant relationship dysfunction may improve outcomes. This study tested Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy (PDP), a dual-focused mother-infant intervention to prevent/decrease maternal postpartum depression and improve aspects of the mother-infant relationship related to child development. Women recruited from hospital postpartum units were screened using a three-stage process. Forty-two depressed first-time mothers and their 6-week-old infants were enrolled and randomized to receive the PDP intervention or usual care plus depression monitoring by phone. The intervention consisted of eight home-based, nurse-delivered mother-infant sessions consisting of (a) supportive, relationship-based, mother-infant psychotherapy, and (b) a developmentally based infant-oriented component focused on promoting positive mother-infant interactions. Data collected at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up included measures of maternal depression, anxiety, maternal self-esteem, parenting stress, and mother-infant interaction. Depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses decreased significantly, and maternal self-esteem increased significantly across the study time frame with no between-group differences. There were no significant differences between groups on parenting stress or mother-infant interaction at post-intervention and follow-up. No participants developed onset of postpartum depression during the course of the study. PDP holds potential for treating depression in the context of the mother-infant relationship; however, usual care plus depression monitoring showed equal benefit. Further research is needed to explore using low-intensity interventions as a first step in a stepped care approach and to determine what subset of at-risk or depressed postpartum mothers might benefit most from the PDP intervention.
Archives of Women s Mental Health 12/2014; 18(3). DOI:10.1007/s00737-014-0483-y · 2.16 Impact Factor
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