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ESET methylates UBF at K232/254 and regulates nucleolar heterochromatin plasticity and rDNA transcription.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, World Class University Neurocytomics Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea, Medical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea, Center for Neuro-Medicine, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791, South Korea, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA, Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center and Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA, Department of Orthopedics and Division of Hematology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA and Medical Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.
Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 8.81). 11/2013; DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt1041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The remodeling of chromatin in the nucleolus is important for the control of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription and ribosome biogenesis. Herein, we found that upstream binding factor (UBF) interacts with ESET, a histone H3K9 methyltransferase and is trimethylated at Lys (K) 232/254 by ESET. UBF trimethylation leads to nucleolar chromatin condensation and decreased rDNA transcriptional activity. UBF mutations at K232/254A and K232/254R restored rDNA transcriptional activity in response to ESET. Both ESET-ΔSET mutant and knockdown of ESET by short hairpin RNA reduced trimethylation of UBF and resulted in the restoration of rDNA transcription. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that UBF trimethylated by ESET modulates the plasticity of nucleolar chromatin. We further demonstrated that UBF trimethylation at K232/254 by ESET deregulates rDNA transcription in a cell model of Huntington's disease. Together, our findings show that a novel epigenetic modification of UBF is linked to impaired rDNA transcription and nucleolar chromatin remodeling, which may play key roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration.

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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, RNA interference is primarily a post-transcriptional mechanism. Evidence has accumulated for additional role in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) but the question for a good paradigm for small interfering antigene RNA (agRNA)-induced chromatin modification remains unanswered. Here, we show that SETDB1, a histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase, cooperates with Argonaute-2 (AGO2) and plays an essential role in agRNA-induced TGS. The androgen receptor (AR) gene was transcriptionally silenced by agRNA targeted to its promoter, and we show that this repression was mitigated by knockdown of SETDB1 or AGO2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that agRNA-driven AGO2 was first targeted to the AR promoter, followed by SETDB1. SIN3A and HDAC1/2, the components of the SIN3-HDAC complex, immunoprecipitated with SETDB1, and localized at the agRNA-targeted promoter. Agreeing with the presence of SETDB1, trimethyl-H3K9 was enriched in the AR promoter. Both EZH2 and trimethyl-H3K27 were also present in the targeted locus; accordingly, EZH2 immunoprecipitated with SETDB1. DNA methylation level was not significantly changed, suggesting the absence of de novo methylating activity in agRNA-induced AR promoter. Our results demonstrate that SETDB1, together with AGO2, plays an essential role in TGS through recruiting chromatin remodeler and/or other modifiers, consequently creating a repressive chromatin milieu at the targeted promoter.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor

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