Intraoperative dynamic assessment of the posterior communicating artery and its branches by indocyanine green videoangiography

Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
Surgical Neurology International (Impact Factor: 1.18). 09/2013; 4:122. DOI: 10.4103/2152-7806.118936
Source: PubMed


True hemodynamic assessment of the posterior communicating artery (PComA) by preoperative angiography in terms of its perforators and configuration (adult vs. fetal vs. transitional) can be challenging in the surgical treatment of aneurysms involving the PComA, posterior cerebral artery, and basilar artery. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) is a widely accepted new technique in the surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms to assess the patency of the parent artery, branches, and residual flow within the aneurysm after clipping.
Here we report two cases in which ICG-VA was utilized to assess either the direction of flow in the PComA or preservation of the PComA perforators with temporary clip application before dividing the PComA.
Our experience is that ICG-VA can be used to assess the main trunk, and perforating branches of the PComA providing real-time, dynamic intraoperative information of the surgical field. Therefore we suggest that ICG-VA may increase the safety of surgical treatment of aneurysm involving PComA.

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    ABSTRACT: : The authors present a case of a tuberothalamic infarct subsequent to division of the posterior communicating artery for clipping of a high-lying aneurysm of the basilar bifurcation using the pterional approach. In view of this clinical observation and some particular aspects of the microsurgical anatomy of the perforating vessels of the posterior communicating artery, we conclude that interrupting this parent vessel carries a significant risk of infarction. (Neurosurgery 28:456-459, 1991) Copyright (C) by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) has been recently introduced into neurovascular surgery and gained a role in assessing vessel patency and obliteration of intracranial aneurysms (IA) after clipping. Although its correlation with intra-postoperative angiography was demonstrated in previous studies, difficulties in evaluating aneurysm obliteration have not been reported. We report reliability and accuracy of ICG-VA in 109 clipped aneurysms with attention given to five cases in which ICG-VA evaluation resulted in false indication that aneurysms were secure in terms of complete obliteration. Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of IAs surgically treated by a single surgeon from January 2009. In all cases, aneurysm obliteration was confirmed by a combination of microdoppler ultrasonography (MUSG), ICG-VA, and post-operative angiography. Results: ICG-VA appropriately assessed vessel patency and aneurysm obliteration in 93.5% of aneurysms clipped. In four cases (3.6%), puncturing the dome of the aneurysm after satisfactory clipping revealed persistent flow within the aneurysm despite ICG-VA showing no flow after clipping. In one case (0.9%), ICG-VA showed persistent flow within the aneurysm and MUSG did not, and puncture of the dome confirmed no flow within the aneurysm. In one case (0.9%), ICG-VA failed to demonstrate residual neck. Conclusion: ICG-VA is a simple and safe procedure and an important adjunct to microsurgical clipping of aneurysm. Although ICG-VA assesses vessel patency and obliteration of aneurysms in most cases, applying the principles of microsurgery in aneurysm clipping remains a main tool for obtaining the complete obliteration of aneurysm along with preservation of the normal vasculature.
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    ABSTRACT: Most reports on small infarcts in the territory of the deep perforators that arise from the internal carotid artery and its branches have focused on the anatomical structures. Recently, it has become possible to map the territories of the deep perforators from the carotid system, based on matching previous anatomical studies with recent data from computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging studies. The middle cerebral artery gives origin to two main groups of perforators: the medial and lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Rarely, the thalamotuberal artery may take origin from the middle cerebral artery but much more commonly it originates from the posterior communicating artery. The anterior cerebral artery gives origin to the anterior lenticulostriate arteries and the recurrent artery of Heubner. The anterior choroidal artery takes its origin from the internal carotid artery and exceptionally from the middle cerebral artery. In addition, a small group of perforators comes directly from the internal carotid artery. The anatomical structures supplied by these perforators are described, and a map of the territories is proposed.
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